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Learning structured models on weighted graphs, with applications to spatial data analysis

Abstract : Modeling complex processes often involve a high number of variables with anintricate correlation structure. For example, many spatially-localized processes display spatial regularity, as variables corresponding to neighboring regions are more correlated than distant ones. The formalism of weighted graphs allows us to capture relationships between interacting variables in a compact manner, permitting the mathematical formulation of many spatial analysis tasks. The first part of this manuscript focuses on optimization problems with graph-structure dregularizers, such as the total variation or the total boundary size. We first present the convex formulation and its resolution with proximal splitting algorithms. We introduce a new preconditioning scheme for the existing generalized forward-backward proximal splitting algorithm, specifically designed for graphs with high variability in neighbourhood configurations and edge weights. We then introduce a new algorithm, cut pursuit, which used the links between graph cuts and total variation in a working set scheme. We also present a variation of this algorithm which solved the problem regularized by the non convex total boundary length penalty. We show that our proposed approaches reach or outperform state-of-the-art for geostatistical aggregation as well as image recovery problems. The second part focuses on the development of a new model, expanding continuous-time Markov chain models to general undirected weighted graphs. This allows us to take into account the interactions between neighbouring nodes in structured classification, as demonstrated for a supervised land-use classification task from cadastral data.
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Loïc Landrieu. Learning structured models on weighted graphs, with applications to spatial data analysis. Machine Learning [stat.ML]. Université Paris sciences et lettres, 2016. English. ⟨NNT : 2016PSLEE046⟩. ⟨tel-01750023⟩

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