Propositions de construction territorialisée de business inclusifs laitiers à l’aide de la gestion de la qualité du lait. Une approche multi-scalaire à partir d’un cas d’étude égyptien.

Abstract : Agri-food companies turn to traditional dairy sector to ensure their supply of milk. Inclusivebusinesses (IB) have emerged from this trend. Despite the enthusiasm raised among the playersof agricultural development, such businesses remain difficult to implement. But to what extentdoes IB coordination fall into an inclusive approach? What are the obstacles to the adoption ofsuch processes and the consequences for their sustainability? A case study is analyzed to explorethese issues, the DEEP project (Danone Egypt Ecosystem Project). Initiated in 2011 by the DanoneEcosystem fund, in partnership with Danone Egypt and the NGO CARE, it promotes a replicablebusiness model of cow milk collection centers (MCC) in public agricultural cooperatives targetingsmall producers. This IB’s aims are to secure the sourcing of Danone’s dairy and to contribute tothe socio-economic development of associated villages. In this thesis, a transdisciplinary analyticalframework is developed; the quality management has been used to link a value chain (VC)approach and a localized agri-food system (SYAL) approach. Socio-economic data were collectedbetween 2014 and 2016, individually and collectively, directly or indirectly from the playersinvolved in this IB. While the extreme diversity of the activities, objectives and resources of actorsevolving around the milk product and the IB is highlighted, improving the quality of the milk seemsto be a common goal. Both the distance and the differences in power between partners limit thepromotion of strategies responding to the complexity and variability of the Egyptian situation.Logics of integration and coercion take place within the inclusive value chain (IVC) drivendownstream by the company with the NGO, to the detriment of collaboration. If the sanitaryquality of the milk provided by the MCC is improving, its compositional quality deteriorates. Thecompany frequently rejects deliveries from MCCs, without a mechanism for compensation, whichlead to the precarity of such built IVC. The IB is therefore discussed by examining the evolution ofthe dairy SYAL from Halabeya. After 6 years of interventions, the MCC became a central playerwithin the milk collection networks. It influences milk sanitary quality through the institutions thatorganize it (milk quality analyses, pricing or hygiene knowledge). The promotion of a hubdelivering agricultural services to MCC suppliers fails. Numerous local family businesses, organizedin specialized networks lacking of coordination, ensure it. It seems that the genericity of theconstruction of sustainable IVC must go through the systematization of partnership processes. InEgypt, a coordination cell in the village could be established. Bringing together various key actorsof the SYAL, this cell could activate the territorial resources in favour of the inhabitants and the IB,by associating it in a steering committee with representatives of the state, the investing companyand the NGO. This steering committee would work on building a business model adapted to theterritory and to the needs of the partners, before piloting the IVC built. Using milk qualityimprovement could catalyze the collective action. By raising awareness of partners, involving thestate, using facilitators and giving the capacity for the territories to communicate on theseinterventions, therefore limiting the differences in power becomes possible. Through its use ofquality management as an inclusion factor, the analytical framework allows approaching distantscales, and lays the foundations for an action framework fostering the territorialization of IBpartnerships. Therefore building sustainable IVCs go hand in hand with the emergence ofautonomous territories, a promising path towards the Southern countries as well as the Northern.
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Annabelle Daburon. Propositions de construction territorialisée de business inclusifs laitiers à l’aide de la gestion de la qualité du lait. Une approche multi-scalaire à partir d’un cas d’étude égyptien.. Agriculture, économie et politique. Institut agronomique, vétérinaire et forestier de France, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017IAVF0012⟩. ⟨tel-01748956v2⟩

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