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Développement d'un cadre méthodologique pour l'évaluation de l'équivalence écologique : Application dans le contexte de la séquence "Éviter, Réduire, Compenser" en France

Abstract : In light of the global erosion of biodiversity caused by human activities, biodiversity offsets and, more broadly the Mitigation Hierarchy, are increasingly used since the 1970s, with the ambition of reconciling economic development and biodiversity conservation. Its objective is to achieve "No Net Loss" (NNL) of biodiversity. One of the key issues to achieve this goal is to demonstrate ecological equivalence between the gains from offsets and the losses caused by impacts. Despite regulatory improvements, the French law does not include a method for assessing equivalence, and no method is unanimously recognized. This leads to heterogeneous practices and difficulties in reaching the NNL objective. In this context, this thesis aims to develop a standardized methodological framework (SMF) for assessing equivalence, which combines operationality, scientific basis and comprehensiveness (taking into account the four dimensions of equivalence: ecological, spatial, temporal and uncertainties). First, 13 methods used abroad are analysed in order to identify structural elements for the development of a SMF adapted to the French context. The construction is decomposed into three steps. The first consists in selecting an organized set of indicators, on which equivalence assessment should be based in order to meet legislative requirements and reflect the complexity of biodiversity. The assessment is to be done at two spatial scales (on-site and within an expanded perimeter) and at three levels reflecting general or specific issues (habitat or species). The second step regards the prediction of the values of the indicators over time, consequently to the impacts and offsets, taking into account the implied uncertainties. The third step leads us to establish rules for calculating losses and gains, as well as for the overall assessment of equivalence. Finally, this SMF is tested on two study sites in order to demonstrate the added value and to identify its limits. Prospects for improving the SMF, and more broadly the evaluation of equivalence, are then suggested. Finally, all these elements make it possible to question the effectiveness of offsets in order to tackle biodiversity erosion.
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Submitted on : Thursday, March 29, 2018 - 10:46:08 AM
Last modification on : Friday, October 23, 2020 - 5:04:19 PM
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Lucie Bezombes. Développement d'un cadre méthodologique pour l'évaluation de l'équivalence écologique : Application dans le contexte de la séquence "Éviter, Réduire, Compenser" en France. Agriculture, économie et politique. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017GREAS044⟩. ⟨tel-01746852⟩

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