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Theses

Hyperaccumulation du nickel sur des substrats élaborés pour l’agromine

Abstract : In view of the depletion of primary resources and the increase in global waste production, the concept of agromining proposes phytoextracting the metals contained in abandoned materials. The solution proposed in this concept is inspired by Nature (NbS) and the principles of agronomy and is part of a circular economy. Thus, hyperaccumulator plants (HA) are able to collect metals from their root system and to store them at high concentrations in their aerial parts. The challenges of the thesis are to give value to waste or secondary materials by extracting the elements of interest that they contain and to identify the plants able to develop on these media. The objective is to formulate, from the chosen materials, a functional substrate, that is to say, capable of rendering a Ni supply service. From this point of view, the substrate must allow the installation and the development of the HAs in order to transfer the metals to the aerial parts. The work focuses on an acid phosphating sludge essentially composed of Fe, Zn, P and Mn and containing 0.5% Ni. Germination and growth tests were carried out with different substrates prepared from this sludge assembled with a soil sample mixture. The retained substrate consists of 10% sludge and 90% soil (w/w). On the latter, HA Alyssum murale produces a higher biomass compared to a control soil (ultramafic soil at the same pH and containing the same amount of bioavailable Ni), despite signs of toxicity to plants. One of the major locks is the high toxicity due to the presence of 6% Zn in the sludge. Two ways of improving the substrate are tested: i) the use of amendments and ii) the arrangement of materials in the profile. The most efficient amendment is a wood biochar; it improves the development of plants and thus the amount of phytoextracted Ni. In addition, by modifying the layout of the materials within the profile by a layered distribution, biomass production and phytoextraction are improved. This device makes it possible to remove Zn-related toxicity. It is essential to control the pH of the substrate during multi-contamination because the immobilization of the metal varies according to the element. The association of soil engineering and plant engineering has made it possible to formulate a functional substrate for the recovery of elements of interest such as Ni. This work demonstrates the possibility of upgrading by-products conventionally called "waste" in order to obtain a surplus value, also reducing their metallic charge and bringing about a new source of "plant-derived" metals obtained by agromining
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01745865
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Submitted on : Wednesday, March 28, 2018 - 4:26:07 PM
Last modification on : Friday, October 23, 2020 - 4:45:35 PM
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DDOC_T_2017_0124_RUE.pdf
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  • HAL Id : tel-01745865, version 1

Citation

Marie Rue. Hyperaccumulation du nickel sur des substrats élaborés pour l’agromine. Sciences agricoles. Université de Lorraine, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LORR0124⟩. ⟨tel-01745865⟩

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