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Modélisation et contrôle des véhicules VTOL avec manipulateurs rigides

Abstract : Aerial manipulation has been an active area of research in recent years, mainly because the active tasking of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) increases the employability of these vehicles for various applications.The recent development of the aerial manipulation has found potential applications in both, military and civilian domains. Military applications include border patrolling, mine detection, reconnaissance, etc., while civilian applications are in disaster management, bridge inspection, construction, material delivery, search and rescue, etc.The research on aerial robotics has mainly involved helicopters and Vertical Take-off and Landing (VTOL) architectures. The main advantage of these platforms is theirmaneuverability and the capacity to perform hovers, which is essential for the applications. This thesis deals with VTOL aircrafts, where the four rotor helicopter, quadcopter or quadrotor is mainly studied.Regarding the problem of aerial manipulation, the amount of applications are increased, but at the same time the complexity of modeling and control of such a system are equally bigger. One of the biggest challenges arise from their limited payload. Some approaches have tried to solve the problem using multiple robots to carry payloads with grippers or with cables, where their end effectors and grippers have to be lightweight themselves and capable of grasping complex shapes. Another challenge is that the dynamics of the robot are significantly altered by the addition of payloads. However, for payload transport, it is necessary that the robots are able to estimate the inertia of the payload and adapt to it to improve tracking performance.According to the background and challenges on VTOL vehicles carrying payloads or manipulators, the contribution of the present work is centered on the modelling and the design of a nonlinear control and a formal stability analysis for the asymptotical stabilization of a VTOL vehicle carrying a manipulator arm. For this a general model of a quadcopter carrying a manipulator arm is proposed. After that, a smooth almost globally asymptotically control law for attitude stabilization which takes into account the arm motion effects is designed. Once the attitude problem is solved, it is possible to design a a globally asymptotically nonlinear controller for the translational dynamics based in the usage of nested and sum of saturation functions in order to take into account the actuators limitations. Finally, some experiments in order to validate the proposed control laws are carried out.
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Jonatan Alvarez Muñoz. Modélisation et contrôle des véhicules VTOL avec manipulateurs rigides. Automatic. Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017GREAT077⟩. ⟨tel-01745470⟩

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