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Lymphomes Natural-Killer T cells (NKT) : impact des stimulations antigéniques chroniques et mécanismes de la lymphomagénèse

Abstract : Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL) are aggressive and heterogeneous neoplasms that represent around 12% of Human lymphomas. Our recent work in p53-/- mice revealed a new PTCL entity, arising from Natural-Killer T-cell (NKT), a particular type of T cell recognizing lipidic antigens. We found that NKT lymphomas (NKTL) present features of chronically stimulated NKT-cells and that lymphomagenesis is driven through chronic TCR activation by microbial glycolipids. In human, many PTCL are suspected to be associated with chronic antigenic stimulation, but this transformation mechanism is still poorly understood.Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb), the causative agent of Lyme disease, induces chronic infection and has recently been suggested to be involved in cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL). However, this observation lacks clinical and experimental proofs. Interestingly, Bb is known to express NKT-activating glycolipids. We therefore infected p53-/- mice by live intradermal Bb injection and showed that Bb infection significantly increased NKTL rate. Phenotypic characterization of these NKTL confirmed our previously described features of chronically stimulated NKT-cells, with expression of activation and exhaustion markers (loss of NK1.1, upregulation of PD-1). Based on surface markers, transcription factors and cytokine production analysis, we also found that our lymphomas mostly present a NKT2 subtype profile, sometimes surprisingly mixed with NKT17 or NKT1. Genomic study by whole-exome sequencing on few of these lymphomas revealed recurrent large losses in the chromosome 13. Within the minimal deletion region, we identified Jarid2, a gene involved in NKT development by epigenetic regulation and which is found altered in 20% of CTCL. Jarid2 loss was detected in almost all NKTL. Interestingly, Jarid2-/- mice show increased NKT number in the periphery with an immature/NKT2 phenotype, sharing features with our NKTL.Thus, we believe that Jarid2 loss may be an important event in NKT lymphomagenesis, as more and more epigenetic factors are found mutated in several human PTCL. To answer this question we are currently breeding p53-/- x Jarid2-/- mice. In conclusion, our data reinforced the concept that chronic bacterial activation of T-cells through their TCR can effectively drive T-cell transformation. We also identified a new potential epigenetic factor that may be involved in lymphomagenesis
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Rémy Robinot. Lymphomes Natural-Killer T cells (NKT) : impact des stimulations antigéniques chroniques et mécanismes de la lymphomagénèse. Cancer. Université de Lyon, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LYSE1255⟩. ⟨tel-01744676⟩

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