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Theses

Identification de nouvelles bases moléculaires des cancers précoces par séquençage à haut débit.

Abstract : One of the greatest advances in oncology and genetics over the past 20 years has been the identification of hereditary forms of cancer and of the cancer genes. Nevertheless, in a majority of patients suspected to present an inherited form of cancer, analyses of the genes known to be involved in the Mendelian predispositions to cancer often remain negative. Today, thanks to the emergence of high-throughput sequencing (NGS), it is now possible to sequence all exons of an individual (exome) or several hundred genes in a short period of time and for a reasonable cost. In this context, we have applied several strategiesbased on these new tools in order to identify new molecular basis of early-onset cancers. First, we applied an intra-familial exome analysis strategy to an atypical family with chondrosarcomas of the chest, for which no molecular basis could be identified. Using this strategy, we were able to identify a truncating alteration of the EXT2 gene NM_000401.3; c.237G> A; p.Trp79 *). The documented loss of function alterations of this gene are implicated in a disease called multiple osteochondromas (OM), associated with benign lesions. Interestingly, these patients showed no clinical signs of OM indicating a potential phenotypic extension of EXT2 mutations. Plus, this work allowed us to change the clinical management of this family. We then used a strategy of subtractive exomic analysis of trio sick child/healthy parents in order to identify de novo mutations in a young patient who developed a medulloblastoma of the cerebellum at 8 years-old followed by a meningioma at 22 years-old. The analysis of the trio revealed the existence of a de novo mutation affecting a highly conserved amino acid of the HID-1 protein. HID-1 is specifically expressed in neuronal and secretory cells, and seems to function around the Golgi apparatus to regulate the sorting of newly formed vesicles. Our hypothesis is that a defect of the HID-1 protein linked to a mutation of the HID-1 gene, could alter the secretory pathway therefore contributing to the development of the tumor. This work, which is still ongoing, demonstrates both the strength of the trio strategy for the rapid identification of de novo mutations and illustrates all the difficulty of interpreting variants detected in genes not yet involved in cancer. Then, thanks to the recruitment of the Laboratory of Molecular Genetics of the CHU of Rouen, we have collected a cohort of 10 patients who developed an adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) at a very early age and for which no molecular basis could be identified. Despite subtractive and inter-familial exomic analyses, we were unable to highlight new molecular bases for these cases of pediatric ACC. Finally, under the assumption that rare or private mutations in a limited number of genes involved in cancer could contribute to inherited forms of cancer, we undertook a project to sequence 201 genes involved in cancer in patients who developed tumors at a pediatric age. The first results of this project confirmed the robustness of this technique and suggested a phenotypic extension of the DICER1 mutation spectrum as well as an oligogenic contribution of DNA repair genes in pediatric tumors. Soon, these results will be compiled in a database and will benefit from a statistical analysis with the objective to identify enrichment of rare variants in specific genes or biological pathways in these patients compared to control individuals.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01744221
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Submitted on : Tuesday, March 27, 2018 - 11:27:09 AM
Last modification on : Thursday, November 28, 2019 - 3:28:35 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01744221, version 1

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Pierre Fermey. Identification de nouvelles bases moléculaires des cancers précoces par séquençage à haut débit.. Génétique humaine. Normandie Université, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017NORMR110⟩. ⟨tel-01744221⟩

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