B. A. Beidleman, B. Paul, S. R. Rock, C. S. Muza, L. L. Fulco et al., Substrate oxidation is altered in women during exercise upon acute altitude exposure, Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, vol.34, issue.3, pp.430-467, 2002.
DOI : 10.1097/00005768-200203000-00008

D. Bendahan, M. Badier, Y. Jammes, S. Confort-gouny, A. M. Salvan et al., P-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy-Surface Electromyogram (MRS???SEMG) Study, Clinical Science, vol.94, issue.3, pp.279-86, 1979.
DOI : 10.1042/cs0940279

P. R. Bender, B. M. Groves, R. E. Mccullough, R. G. Mccullough, S. Y. Huang et al., Oxygen transport to exercising leg in chronic hypoxia, Oxygen Transport to Exercising Leg in Chronic Hypoxia, pp.2592-97, 1985.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1988.65.6.2592

H. Benoit, T. Busso, J. Castells, A. Geyssant, and C. Denis, « Decrease in Peak Heart Rate with Acute Hypoxia in Relation to Sea Level VO(2max), 5?6):514?19. https, 2003.

J. Bergström, P. Fürst, and E. Hultman, Free amino acids in muscle tissue and plasma during exercise in man, Clinical Physiology, vol.152, issue.2, pp.155-60, 1985.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00581301

A. X. Bigard, P. Satabin, P. Lavier, F. Canon, D. Taillandier et al., Effects of protein supplementation during prolonged exercise at moderate altitude on performance and plasma amino acid pattern, European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, vol.20, issue.1, pp.5-10, 1993.
DOI : 10.1159/000420983

X. Bigard and C. Guezennec, Nutrition du sportif, 2007.

D. L. Bonetti, W. G. Et, and . Hopkins, Sea-Level Exercise Performance Following Adaptation to Hypoxia, Sports Medicine, vol.22, issue.5, pp.107-134, 2009.
DOI : 10.1249/01.mss.0000272879.95059.77

C. Boos, J. John, O. Paul, A. Hara, P. Mellor et al., A Four-Way Comparison of Cardiac Function with Normobaric Normoxia, Normobaric Hypoxia, Hypobaric Hypoxia and Genuine High Altitude, PLOS ONE, vol.100, issue.4, p.152868, 2016.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0152868.s002

P. Bouissou, C. Guezennec, G. Defer, and P. Pesquies, Oxygen Consumption, Lactate Accumulation, and Sympathetic Response During Prolonged Exercise Under Hypoxia, International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol.08, issue.04, 1987.
DOI : 10.1055/s-2008-1025667

A. Boussuges, F. Molenat, H. Burnet, E. Cauchy, B. Gardette et al., Operation Everest III (Comex '97): Modifications of Cardiac Function Secondary to Altitude-induced Hypoxia, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol.129, issue.1, pp.264-70, 2000.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1540-8191.1988.tb00440.x

M. D. Brand, « The Efficiency and Plasticity of Mitochondrial Energy Transduction, Biochemical Society Transactions, vol.33, 2005.

B. Braun, J. T. Mawson, S. R. Muza, S. B. Dominick, G. A. Brooks et al., Women at altitude: carbohydrate utilization during exercise at 4,300 m, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.52, issue.1, pp.246-56, 2000.
DOI : 10.1152/ajpendo.1994.266.6.E921

S. Brimioulle, P. Lejeune, and E. R. Naeije, Effects of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction on pulmonary gas exchange, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.257, issue.26, pp.1535-1578, 1985.
DOI : 10.1016/0034-5687(69)90071-1

G. A. Brooks, IMPORTANCE OF THE 'CROSSOVER' CONCEPT IN EXERCISE METABOLISM, Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, vol.24, issue.11, pp.889-95, 1997.
DOI : 10.1113/jphysiol.1993.sp019823

G. A. Brooks, G. E. Butterfield, R. R. Wolfe, B. M. Groves, R. S. Mazzeo et al., Increased dependence on blood glucose after acclimatization to 4,300 m, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.70, issue.2, pp.919-946, 1991.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1991.70.2.919

G. A. Brooks, J. Et, and . Mercier, Balance of carbohydrate and lipid utilization during exercise: the "crossover" concept, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.76, issue.6, pp.762253-61, 1985.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1994.76.6.2253

G. A. Brooks, J. Et, and . Mercier, Balance of carbohydrate and lipid utilization during exercise: the "crossover" concept, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.76, issue.6, pp.2253-61, 19941994.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1994.76.6.2253

C. Cabasson, Y. Ben-akal-ben-fatma, H. Hédiji, and D. Rolin, « L'étude du métabolome de la tomate par RMN du proton, 2008.

J. A. Calbet, R. Boushel, G. Rådegran, H. Søndergaard, P. D. Wagner et al., Determinants of maximal oxygen uptake in severe acute hypoxia, Determinants of Maximal Oxygen Uptake in Severe Acute Hypoxia, pp.291-303, 2002.
DOI : 10.1152/ajpregu.1998.275.1.R33

J. A. Calbet, R. Göran-rådegran, B. Boushel, and . Saltin, On the mechanisms that limit oxygen uptake during exercise in acute and chronic hypoxia: role of muscle mass, The Journal of Physiology, vol.275, issue.2, pp.477-90, 2009.
DOI : 10.1152/japplphysiol.00093.2001

. Calbet, A. L. José, P. Robach, C. Lundby, and R. Boushel, « Is Pulmonary Gas Exchange during Exercise in Hypoxia Impaired with the Increase of Cardiac Output? » Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism = Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme, vol.33, issue.3, pp.593-600, 2008.

F. Caquelard, H. Burnet, F. Tagliarini, E. Cauchy, J. P. Richalet et al., « Effects of Prolonged Hypobaric Hypoxia on Human Skeletal Muscle Function and Electromyographic Events », Clinical Science, issue.3, pp.98329-98366, 1979.

P. Cerretelli, Limiting factors to oxygen transport on Mount Everest, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.40, issue.5, pp.658-67, 1976.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1976.40.5.658

R. F. Chapman, . Emery, and . Stager, « Degree of arterial desaturation in normoxia influences VO2max decline in mild hypoxia ». Medicine and science in sports and exercise, pp.31658-63, 1999.

R. F. Chapman, J. L. Stickford, and B. D. Levine, Altitude training considerations for the winter sport athlete, Experimental Physiology, vol.39, issue.Suppl 1, pp.411-432, 2010.
DOI : 10.1249/mss.0b013e3180de49e6

S. N. Cheuvront, R. Carter, and M. N. Sawka, Fluid Balance and Endurance Exercise Performance, Current Sports Medicine Reports, vol.2, issue.4, pp.202-210, 2003.
DOI : 10.1249/00149619-200308000-00006

S. N. Cheuvront, W. Robert, S. J. Kenefick, M. N. Montain, and . Sawka, Mechanisms of aerobic performance impairment with heat stress and dehydration, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.77, issue.6, 2010.
DOI : 10.1113/jphysiol.2004.079202

E. Chorell, T. Moritz, S. Branth, H. Antti, and M. B. Svensson, Predictive Metabolomics Evaluation of Nutrition-Modulated Metabolic Stress Responses in Human Blood Serum During the Early Recovery Phase of Strenuous Physical Exercise, Journal of Proteome Research, vol.8, issue.6, pp.2966-77, 2009.
DOI : 10.1021/pr900081q

E. Chorell, M. B. Svensson, T. Moritz, and H. Antti, Physical fitness level is reflected by alterations in the human plasma metabolome, 1187?96. https, 2012.
DOI : 10.1002/cem.1006

J. Conkin and J. H. Wessel, Critique of the Equivalent Air Altitude Model, Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, vol.79, issue.10, 2008.
DOI : 10.3357/ASEM.2331.2008

S. A. Coolen, C. A. Daykin, J. P. Van-duynhoven, A. Ferdi, F. Van-dorsten et al., Measurement of ischaemia-reperfusion in patients with intermittent claudication using NMR-based metabonomics, NMR in Biomedicine, vol.84, issue.4, pp.686-95, 2008.
DOI : 10.1042/cs0890581

D. M. Cooper, D. H. Wasserman, M. Vranic, and E. K. Wasserman, Glucose turnover in response to exercise during high- and low-FIO2 breathing in man, American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol.42, issue.2, pp.209-214, 1986.
DOI : 10.1042/bj1030514

C. B. Cordella and D. Bertrand, SAISIR: A new general chemometric toolbox, TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol.54, pp.75-82, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.trac.2013.10.009

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01004756

P. Courcoux, M. Devaux, and B. Bouchet, Simultaneous decomposition of multivariate images using three-way data analysis, Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, pp.169-743900013, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0169-7439(02)00013-8

W. L. Cunningham, E. J. Becker, and E. F. Kreuzer, Catecholamines in plasma and urine at high altitude, Catecholamines in Plasma and Urine at High Altitude, pp.607-617, 1965.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1965.20.4.607

G. Da-rodriguez, F. Alcarraz-vizan, S. Gomez, E. Diaz-moralli, . Gimeno et al., et M Cascante. s. d. « Plasma Metabolomic Profile in COPD Patients: Effects of Endurance Training, A18. PULMONARY REHABILITATION: ADDING MUSCLE TO THERAPY FOR PATIENTS WITH RESPIRATORY DISEASE, A1050. American Thoracic Society International Conference Abstracts

J. Daut, G. Et, and . Elzinga, Substrate dependence of energy metabolism in isolated guinea-pig cardiac muscle: a microcalorimetric study., The Journal of Physiology, vol.413, issue.1, pp.379-97, 1989.
DOI : 10.1113/jphysiol.1989.sp017659

J. A. Dempsey and H. V. Forster, Mediation of Ventilatory Adaptations., Mediation of Ventilatory Adaptations, pp.262-346, 1982.
DOI : 10.1152/physrev.1982.62.1.262

J. A. Dempsey, N. Gledhill, W. G. Reddan, H. V. Forster, P. G. Hanson et al., PULMONARY ADAPTATION TO EXERCISE: EFFECTS OF EXERCISE TYPE AND DURATION, CHRONIC HYPOXIA AND PHYSICAL TRAINING, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol.70, issue.6, pp.243-61, 1977.
DOI : 10.1042/cs0430861

K. Dettmer, D. Bruce, and . Hammock, « Metabolomics--a new exciting field within the, omics " sciences. » Environmental Health Perspectives, vol.112, issue.7, pp.396-97, 2004.

D. Prampero and P. Enrico, Factors limiting maximal performance in humans, 3?4):420?29. https, 2003.
DOI : 10.1007/s00421-003-0926-z

F. Dieterle, A. Ross, G. Schlotterbeck, and H. Senn, H NMR Metabonomics, Application in 1H NMR Metabonomics, pp.4281-90, 2006.
DOI : 10.1021/ac051632c

D. B. Dill, D. S. Et, and . Evans, Report barometric pressure, Report Barometric Pressure, pp.914-930, 1970.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1970.29.6.914

D. M. Dipasquale, Moving the Debate Forward, Current Sports Medicine Reports, vol.16, issue.2, pp.68-70, 2017.
DOI : 10.1249/JSR.0000000000000337

E. Dousset, J. G. Steinberg, N. Balon, and Y. Jammes, Effects of acute hypoxemia on force and surface EMG during sustained handgrip, Effects of Acute Hypoxemia on Force and Surface EMG during Sustained Handgrip, pp.364-71, 2001.
DOI : 10.1002/1097-4598(200103)24:3<364::AID-MUS1007>3.0.CO;2-B

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01436195

M. Dumas, E. C. Maibaum, C. Teague, H. Ueshima, B. Zhou et al., H NMR Spectroscopy Based Metabonomics for Large-Scale Epidemiological Research:?? the INTERMAP Study, Analytical Chemistry, vol.78, issue.7, pp.2199-2208, 2006.
DOI : 10.1021/ac0517085

F. Durand, C. Et, and . Préfaut, Similitudes physiopathologiques entre les pathologies d'altitude et l'hypox??mie induite par l'exercice, Science & Sports, vol.15, issue.3, pp.765-159780020, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0765-1597(00)80020-9

J. V. Durnin, J. Et, and . Womersley, Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thickness: measurements on 481 men and women aged from 16 to 72 Years, British Journal of Nutrition, vol.12, issue.01, pp.77-97, 1974.
DOI : 10.1093/geronj/12.3.284

C. Enea, F. Seguin, J. Petitpas-mulliez, N. Boildieu, N. Boisseau et al., 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach for exploring urinary metabolome modifications after acute and chronic physical exercise, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol.106, issue.3, pp.1167-76, 2010.
DOI : 10.1249/00005768-198710001-00011

E. Ezan, « L'analyse du métabolome: un nouvel outil pour les biologistes, 2008.

V. Faoro, S. Boldingh, M. Moreels, S. Martinez, M. Lamotte et al., Bosentan Decreases Pulmonary Vascular Resistance and Improves Exercise Capacity in Acute Hypoxia, ):1215?22. https, pp.8-2222, 2009.
DOI : 10.1378/chest.08-2222

V. Faoro, G. Deboeck, M. Vicenzi, A. Gaston, B. Simaga et al., « Pulmonary Vascular Function and Aerobic Exercise Capacityat Moderate Altitude ». Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, mai. https, 2017.

V. Faoro, M. Lamotte, G. Deboeck, A. Pavelescu, S. Huez et al., Effects of Sildenafil on Exercise Capacity in Hypoxic Normal Subjects, Effects of Sildenafil on Exercise Capacity in Hypoxic Normal Subjects, pp.155-63, 2007.
DOI : 10.1089/ham.2007.1058

. Feriche, A. Belén, C. García-ramos, F. Calderón-soto, J. G. Drobnic et al., Effect of Acute Exposure to Moderate Altitude on Muscle Power: Hypobaric Hypoxia vs. Normobaric Hypoxia, PLoS ONE, vol.37, issue.12, p.114072, 2014.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0114072.t005

E. Ferrannini, The theoretical bases of indirect calorimetry: A review, Metabolism, vol.37, issue.3, pp.287-301, 1988.
DOI : 10.1016/0026-0495(88)90110-2

G. Ferretti, C. Moia, J. M. Thomet, and E. B. Kayser, The decrease of maximal oxygen consumption during hypoxia in man: a mirror image of the oxygen equilibrium curve., The Journal of Physiology, vol.498, issue.1, pp.231-268, 1997.
DOI : 10.1113/jphysiol.1997.sp021854

J. W. Fisher, Recent advances in erythropoietin research, Progress in Drug Research. Fortschritte Der Arzneimittelforschung. Progrès Des Recherches Pharmaceutiques 41, pp.293-311, 1993.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-0348-7150-1_9

A. P. Fishman, Hypoxia on the pulmonary circulation. How and where it acts, Circulation Research, vol.38, issue.4, pp.221-252, 1976.
DOI : 10.1161/01.RES.38.4.221

C. S. Fulco, R. Stephen, B. A. Muza, R. Beidleman, J. E. Demes et al., Effect of repeated normobaric hypoxia exposures during sleep on acute mountain sickness, exercise performance, and sleep during exposure to terrestrial altitude, American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, vol.91, issue.2, pp.428-436, 2011.
DOI : 10.1089/ham.2009.1019

H. Gao, B. Dong, X. Liu, H. Xuan, Y. Huang et al., Metabonomic profiling of renal cell carcinoma: High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of human serum with multivariate data analysis, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol.624, issue.2, pp.269-277, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.aca.2008.06.051

Y. Gao, « Urine?an untapped goldmine for biomarker discovery? », 2013, Science China Life Sci édition, 2013.

J. A. Garcia, S. B. Mcminn, J. H. Zuckerman, D. E. Fixler, and B. D. Levine, The role of the right ventricle during hypobaric hypoxic exercise: insights from patients after the Fontan operation, Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, vol.31, issue.2, pp.269-76, 1999.
DOI : 10.1097/00005768-199902000-00011

A. Gaston, F. Durand, E. Roca, G. Doucende, I. Hapkova et al., Exercise-Induced Hypoxaemia Developed at Sea-Level Influences Responses to Exercise at Moderate Altitude, PLOS ONE, vol.17, issue.9, 2016.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0161819.s003

R. L. Ge, Y. Matsuzawa, M. Takeoka, K. Kubo, M. Sekiguchi et al., Low Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity in Subjects With Acute Mountain Sickness, Chest, vol.111, issue.1, pp.58-64, 1997.
DOI : 10.1378/chest.111.1.58

R. Ge, S. Witkowski, Y. Zhang, C. Alfrey, M. Sivieri et al., Determinants of erythropoietin release in response to short-term hypobaric hypoxia, Determinants of Erythropoietin Release in Response to Short-Term Hypobaric Hypoxia, pp.2361-67, 1985.
DOI : 10.1016/S0034-5687(99)00024-9

H. A. Ghofrani, M. G. Frank-reichenberger, . Kohstall, H. Eike, T. Mrosek et al., Sildenafil Increased Exercise Capacity during Hypoxia at Low Altitudes and at Mount Everest Base Camp, Annals of Internal Medicine, vol.141, issue.3, pp.169-77, 2004.
DOI : 10.7326/0003-4819-141-3-200408030-00005

M. J. Gibney, M. Walsh, L. Brennan, H. M. Roche, B. German et al., Metabolomics in human nutrition: opportunities and challenges, Metabolomics in Human Nutrition: Opportunities and Challenges, pp.497-503, 2005.
DOI : 10.1093/jn/134.10.2729

. González-alonso, C. G. José, J. M. Crandall, and . Johnson, « The Cardiovascular Challenge of Exercising in the Heat):45?53. https, The Journal of Physiology, vol.586, issue.1, 2008.

. González-alonso, R. José, P. R. Mora-rodríguez, E. F. Below, and . Coyle, « Dehydration Markedly Impairs Cardiovascular Function in Hyperthermic Endurance Athletes during Exercise », Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.82, issue.4, pp.1229-1265, 1997.

C. J. Gore, A. G. Hahn, G. C. Scroop, D. B. Watson, K. I. Norton et al., Increased arterial desaturation in trained cyclists during maximal exercise at 580 m altitude, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.80, issue.6, pp.2204-2214, 1996.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1996.80.6.2204

R. F. Grover, J. V. Weil, and J. T. Reeves, 9 Cardiovascular Adaptation to Exercise at High Altitude, Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, vol.14, pp.269-302, 1986.
DOI : 10.1249/00003677-198600140-00012

D. P. Hall, K. Duncan, and J. K. Baillie, « High Altitude Pulmonary Oedema »):68?72. https, Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps, vol.157, issue.1, 2011.

M. N. Hawkins, B. Peter, P. G. Raven, J. Snell, . Stray-gundersen et al., « Maximal Oxygen Uptake as a Parametric Measure of Cardiorespiratory Capacity, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol.39, issue.1, pp.103-110, 2007.

D. D. Heistad, F. M. Et, and . Abboud, Dickinson W. Richards Lecture: Circulatory adjustments to hypoxia, Circulation, vol.61, issue.3, pp.463-70, 1980.
DOI : 10.1161/01.CIR.61.3.463

T. Hemmingsson and D. Linnarsson, Lower exhaled nitric oxide in hypobaric than in normobaric acute hypoxia, Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, vol.169, issue.1, pp.74-77, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.resp.2009.08.006

C. Heymans and J. J. Bouckaert, Sinus caroticus and respiratory reflexes, Sinus caroticus and respiratory reflexes, pp.254-66, 1930.
DOI : 10.1113/jphysiol.1930.sp002648

P. C. Hinkle, M. A. Kumar, A. Resetar, and D. L. Harris, Mechanistic stoichiometry of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, Mechanistic Stoichiometry of Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation, pp.3576-82, 1991.
DOI : 10.1021/bi00228a031

P. W. Hochachka, Exercise Limitations at High Altitude: The Metabolic Problem and Search for Its Solution, Circulation, Respiration, and Metabolism, 240?49. Proceedings in Life Sciences, pp.978-981, 1985.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-642-70610-3_18

E. Hochachka and . Somero, Biochemical Adaptation: Mechanism and Process in Physiological Evolution, 2002.
DOI : 10.1515/9781400855414

A. B. Hodgson, R. K. Randell, N. Boon, U. Garczarek, D. J. Mela et al., Metabolic response to green tea extract during rest and moderate-intensity exercise, The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol.24, issue.1, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2012.06.017

M. P. Hodson, J. Gordon, A. D. Dear, C. L. Roberts, R. J. Haylock et al., A gender-specific discriminator in Sprague???Dawley rat urine: The deployment of a metabolic profiling strategy for biomarker discovery and identification, Analytical Biochemistry, vol.362, issue.2, pp.182-92, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ab.2006.12.037

R. P. Hogan, T. A. Kotchen, A. E. Boyd, and L. H. Hartley, Effect of altitude on renin-aldosterone system and metabolism of water and electrolytes, Effect of Altitude on Renin-Aldosterone System and Metabolism of Water and Electrolytes, pp.385-90, 1973.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1973.35.3.385

S. R. Hopkins, J. Harm, K. Bogaard, Y. Niizeki, . Yamaya et al., ??-Adrenergic or parasympathetic inhibition, heart rate and cardiac output during normoxic and acute hypoxic exercise in humans, The Journal of Physiology, vol.92, issue.2, 2003.
DOI : 10.1152/japplphysiol.00409.2001

J. F. Horowitz and S. Klein, Lipid metabolism during endurance exercise, Lipid Metabolism during Endurance Exercise, pp.558-563, 2000.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1996.80.6.2217

D. Horstman, R. Weiskopf, and R. E. Jackson, Work capacity during 3-wk sojourn at 4,300 m: effects of relative polycythemia, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.49, issue.2, pp.311-329, 1980.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1980.49.2.311

T. J. Horton, M. J. Pagliassotti, K. Hobbs, and J. O. Hill, Fuel metabolism in men and women during and after long-duration exercise, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.17, issue.21, pp.1823-1855, 1985.
DOI : 10.1113/jphysiol.1949.sp004363

H. Hotelling, Analysis of a complex of statistical variables into principal components, » Journal of Educational Psychology, 1933.

R. L. Hughes, M. Clode, R. H. Edwards, T. J. Goodwin, and N. L. Jones, Effect of inspired O2 on cardiopulmonary and metabolic responses to exercise in man., Effect of Inspired O2 on Cardiopulmonary and Metabolic Responses to Exercise in Man, pp.336-383, 1968.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1968.24.3.336

R. L. Hughson, Y. Yamamoto, R. E. Mccullough, J. R. Sutton, and J. T. Reeves, Sympathetic and parasympathetic indicators of heart rate control at altitude studied by spectral analysis, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.77, issue.6, pp.772537-772579, 1985.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1994.77.6.2537

E. Jansson, On the significance of the respiratory exchange ratio after different diets during exercise in man, Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, vol.57, issue.1, pp.103-110, 1982.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4613-4609-8_18

E. Jansson, L. Et, and . Kaijser, « Effect of Diet on the Utilization of Blood-Borne and Intramuscular Substrates during Exercise in Man):19?30. https, Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, vol.1151, 1982.

K. Katayama, K. Goto, K. Ishida, and F. Ogita, Substrate utilization during exercise and recovery at moderate altitude, Metabolism, vol.59, issue.7, pp.959-66, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.metabol.2009.10.017

A. Keys, F. G. Hall, E. S. Guzman-barron, «. The, . Of et al., THE POSITION OF THE OXYGEN DISSOCIATION CURVE OF HUMAN BLOOD AT HIGH ALTITUDE, American Journal of Physiology-Legacy Content, vol.115, issue.2, pp.292-307, 1936.
DOI : 10.1152/ajplegacy.1936.115.2.292

G. M. Kirwan, G. Vernon, J. O. Coffey, J. A. Niere, M. J. Hawley et al., « Spectroscopic correlation analysis of NMR-based metabonomics in exercise science ». Analytica Chimica Acta, Fundamental and Applied Analytical Science. A Special Issue In Honour of Alan Townshend, FAAS, vol.652, issue.12, pp.173-79, 2009.

K. Klausen, Cardiac output in man in rest and work during and after acclimatization to 3,800 m., Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.21, issue.2, pp.609-625, 1966.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1966.21.2.609

A. M. Knab, C. David, N. D. Nieman, R. A. Gillitt, L. Shanely et al., Effects of a Flavonoid-Rich Juice on Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Immunity in Elite Swimmers: A Metabolomics-Based Approach, Effects of a Flavonoid-Rich Juice on Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Immunity in Elite Swimmers: A Metabolomics- Based Approach, pp.150-60, 2013.
DOI : 10.1123/ijsnem.23.2.150

S. Koundal, S. Gandhi, T. Kaur, A. Mazumder, and S. Khushu, ???Omics??? of High Altitude Biology: A Urinary Metabolomics Biomarker Study of Rats Under Hypobaric Hypoxia, OMICS: A Journal of Integrative Biology, vol.19, issue.12, pp.757-65, 2015.
DOI : 10.1089/omi.2015.0155

N. L. Kuehnbaum, J. B. Gillen, M. J. Gibala, and P. Britz-mckibbin, Personalized Metabolomics for Predicting Glucose Tolerance Changes in Sedentary Women After High-Intensity Interval Training, Scientific Reports, vol.9, issue.1, p.6166, 2014.
DOI : 10.1007/s11306-012-0482-9

J. Kuhl, T. Moritz, H. Wagner, H. Stenlund, K. Lundgren et al., Metabolomics as a tool to evaluate exercise-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity, Metabolomics as a Tool to Evaluate Exercise-Induced Improvements in Insulin Sensitivity », pp.273-82, 2008.
DOI : 10.1007/s11306-008-0118-2

U. M. Kujala, I. Ville-petteri-mäkinen, P. Heinonen, A. J. Soininen, T. H. Kangas et al., Long-term Leisure-time Physical Activity and Serum Metabolome, 340?48. https, 2013.
DOI : 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.105551

URL : http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/circulationaha/127/3/340.full.pdf

S. Lahiri, E. Mulligan, T. Nishino, A. Mokashi, and R. O. Davies, Relative responses of aortic body and carotid body chemoreceptors to carboxyhemoglobinemia, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.50, issue.3, pp.580-86, 1981.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1981.50.3.580

J. Lawler, S. K. Powers, and E. D. Thompson, Linear relationship between VO2max and VO2max decrement during exposure to acute hypoxia, Linear Relationship between VO2max and VO2max Decrement during Exposure to Acute Hypoxia, pp.1486-92, 1988.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1988.64.4.1486

L. Moyec, L. , A. Pruna, M. Eugène, J. Bedrossian et al., Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Urine and Plasma in Renal Transplantation Follow-Up, Nephron, vol.65, issue.3, pp.433-472, 1993.
DOI : 10.1159/000187525

L. Moyec, C. Laurence, M. N. Robert, V. L. Triba, X. Billat et al., Protein Catabolism and High Lipid Metabolism Associated with Long-Distance Exercise Are Revealed by Plasma NMR Metabolomics in Endurance Horses, PLoS ONE, vol.85, issue.2, p.90730, 2014.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0090730.t003

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00973735

P. W. Lemon, Dietary protein requirements in athletes, The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol.8, issue.2, pp.52-60, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0955-2863(97)00007-7

E. M. Lenz, J. Bright, I. D. Wilson, S. R. Morgan, and A. F. Nash, A 1H NMR-based metabonomic study of urine and plasma samples obtained from healthy human subjects, Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, vol.33, issue.5, pp.1103-1118, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0731-7085(03)00410-2

L. Levin, W. Gevers, L. Jardine, F. J. De-guel, E. J. Et et al., Serum amino acids in weight-losing patients with cancer and tuberculosis, European Journal of Cancer and Clinical Oncology, vol.19, issue.6, pp.711-150277, 1983.
DOI : 10.1016/0277-5379(83)90002-0

M. Li, Urine Reflection of Changes in Blood, Urine Proteomics in Kidney Disease Biomarker Discovery, 2015.
DOI : 10.1007/978-94-017-9523-4_2

W. Liao, B. Liu, J. Chen, J. Cui, Y. Gao et al., « Metabolite Modulation in Human Plasma in the Early Phase of Acclimatization to Hypobaric Hypoxia » Scientific Reports 6 (mars). https, 2016.

J. C. Lindon, J. K. Nicholson, and E. Holmes, The Handbook of Metabonomics and Metabolomics, 2011.

J. Liu, W. Jian-quan, Y. Ji-jun, W. Jing-yu, G. Wei-na et al., Metabolomic Study on Vitamins B1, B2, and PP Supplementation to Improve Serum Metabolic Profiles in Mice under Acute Hypoxia Based on 1H NMR Analysis, Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, vol.23, issue.4, pp.312-330, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/S0895-3988(10)60069-4

X. Liu, W. Zhu, S. Guan, R. Feng, H. Zhang et al., Metabolomic Analysis of Anti-Hypoxia and Anti-anxiety Effects of Fu Fang Jin Jing Oral Liquid, PLoS ONE, vol.9, issue.35, p.78281, 2013.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0078281.s001

J. A. Loeppky, M. Icenogle, P. Scotto, R. Robergs, H. Hinghofer-szalkay et al., Ventilation during simulated altitude, normobaric hypoxia and normoxic hypobaria, Ventilation during Simulated Altitude, Normobaric Hypoxia and Normoxic Hypobaria, pp.231-270, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0034-5687(97)02523-1

J. A. Loeppky, C. Robert, D. Roach, H. Maes, A. Hinghofer-szalkay et al., Role of Hypobaria in Fluid Balance Response to Hypoxia, Role of Hypobaria in Fluid Balance Response to Hypoxia, pp.60-71, 2005.
DOI : 10.1089/ham.2005.6.60

. Lou, P. Bih-show, Y. Wu, J. Liu, and . Wang, Effects of Acute Systematic Hypoxia on Human Urinary Metabolites Using LC-MS-Based Metabolomics, High Altitude Medicine & Biology, vol.15, issue.2, pp.192-202, 2014.
DOI : 10.1089/ham.2013.1130

E. K. Louie, S. Rich, S. Levitsky, and B. H. Brundage, Doppler echocardiographic demonstration of the differential effects of right ventricular pressure and volume overload on left ventricular geometry and filling, Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol.19, issue.1, pp.84-90, 1992.
DOI : 10.1016/0735-1097(92)90056-S

A. T. Lovering, M. Lee, H. C. Romer, D. F. Haverkamp, J. S. Pegelow et al., Intrapulmonary shunting and pulmonary gas exchange during normoxic and hypoxic exercise in healthy humans, Intrapulmonary Shunting and Pulmonary Gas Exchange during Normoxic and Hypoxic Exercise in Healthy Humans, pp.1418-1443, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/0021-9290(71)90034-0

C. Lundby and G. V. Hall, Substrate utilization in sea level residents during exercise in acute hypoxia and after 4 weeks of acclimatization to 4100 m, Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, vol.63, issue.3, pp.195-201, 2002.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00364456

C. Lundby, P. Et, and . Robach, Performance Enhancement: What Are the Physiological Limits?, Physiology, vol.278, issue.4, pp.282-92, 2015.
DOI : 10.1152/japplphysiol.01129.2007

C. Lundby, M. Sander, G. Van-hall, B. Saltin, A. Et-josé et al., Maximal exercise and muscle oxygen extraction in acclimatizing lowlanders and high altitude natives, The Journal of Physiology, vol.81, issue.2, 2006.
DOI : 10.1113/jphysiol.2003.054650

P. Lundby, I. L. Møller, N. V. Kanstrup, and . Olsen, Heart rate response to hypoxic exercise: role of dopamine D2-receptors and effect of oxygen supplementation, Clinical Science, vol.101, issue.4, pp.377-83, 1979.
DOI : 10.1042/cs1010377

Y. Luo, J. Zhu, and Y. Gao, Metabolomic analysis of the plasma of patients with high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) using 1H NMR, ):1783?88. https, 2012.
DOI : 10.1161/01.CIR.97.12.1124

H. Lupton and A. V. Hill, An analysis of the effects of speed on the mechanical efficiency of human muscular movement, The Journal of Physiology, vol.57, issue.6, pp.337-53, 1923.
DOI : 10.1113/jphysiol.1923.sp002072

E. Maes, La resonance magnetique nucleaire (Apprentissage à l'interprétation des spectres à une et deux dimensions des chaînes O-glycanniques), 2009.

M. Maggiorini, F. Et, and . Léon-velarde, High-altitude pulmonary hypertension: a pathophysiological entity to different diseases, European Respiratory Journal, vol.22, issue.6, pp.1019-1044, 2003.
DOI : 10.1183/09031936.03.00052403

D. Martin, . Powers, . Cicale, . Collop, . Huang et al., Validity of pulse oximetry during exercise in elite endurance athletes, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.72, issue.2, pp.455-58, 1985.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1992.72.2.455

D. Martin, O. Joseph, and . Kroy, « Effects of acute hypoxia on the VO2 max of trained and untrained subjects »):37?42. https, Journal of Sports Sciences, vol.11, issue.1, 1993.

R. S. Mazzeo, E. E. Wolfel, G. E. Butterfield, and J. T. Reeves, Sympathetic response during 21 days at high altitude (4,300 m) as determined by urinary and arterial catecholamines, Sympathetic Response during 21 Days at High Altitude, pp.1226-1258, 1994.
DOI : 10.1016/0026-0495(94)90215-1

R. S. Mazzeo, Physiological Responses to Exercise at Altitude, Sports Medicine, vol.97, issue.6, pp.1-8, 2008.
DOI : 10.2165/00007256-200838010-00001

. Mazzeo, Physiological Responses to Exercise at Altitude, Sports Medicine, vol.97, issue.6, pp.1-8, 2008.
DOI : 10.2165/00007256-200838010-00001

G. B. Mcclelland, Fat to the fire: the regulation of lipid oxidation with exercise and environmental stress, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol.139, issue.3, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cbpc.2004.07.003

R. T. Mckay, « How the 1D-NOESY Suppresses Solvent Signal in Metabonomics NMR Spectroscopy: An Examination of the Pulse Sequence Components and Evolution ». Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A 38A (5):197?220. https, 2011.

P. Mercier, M. J. Lewis, D. Chang, D. Baker, and D. S. Wishart, Towards automatic metabolomic profiling of high-resolution one-dimensional proton NMR spectra, 3?4):307?23. https, 2011.
DOI : 10.1007/s12177-009-9038-2

F. M. Messier, L. L. Moyec, C. Santi, A. Gaston, N. Mohamed et al., « The impact of moderate altitude on exercise metabolism in recreational sportsmen: a nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomic approach ». Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, juin, 2017.

A. Miccheli, F. Marini, G. Capuani, A. T. Miccheli, M. Delfini et al., The Influence of a Sports Drink on the Postexercise Metabolism of Elite Athletes as Investigated by NMR-Based Metabolomics, Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol.8, issue.2, pp.553-64, 2009.
DOI : 10.1021/pr900081q

G. P. Millet, R. Faiss, and V. Pialoux, Point: Counterpoint: Hypobaric hypoxia induces/does not induce different responses from normobaric hypoxia, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.91, issue.10, 2012.
DOI : 10.1152/japplphysiol.01284.2005

URL : http://jap.physiology.org/content/jap/112/10/1783.full.pdf

G. Millet, L. Schmitt, J. Richalet, and C. Fauquet, S'entraîner en altitude: mécanismes, méthodes, exemples, conseils pratiques, 2011.

P. Mollard, N. Bourdillon, M. Letournel, H. Herman, S. Gibert et al., Validity of arterialized earlobe blood gases at rest and exercise in normoxia and hypoxia, Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, vol.172, issue.3, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.resp.2010.05.017

P. Mollard, . Woorons, . Letournel, C. Cornolo, . Lamberto et al., in Moderate Acute Hypoxia in Trained and Untrained Men, International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol.28, issue.3, pp.186-92, 2007.
DOI : 10.1055/s-2006-924215

P. Mollard, X. Woorons, S. Antoine-jonville, L. Jutand, J. P. Richalet et al., ???Oxygen uptake efficiency slope??? in trained and untrained subjects exposed to hypoxia, Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, vol.161, issue.2, pp.167-73, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.resp.2008.01.006

P. Mollard, X. Woorons, M. Letournel, C. Lamberto, F. Favret et al., Determinants of maximal oxygen uptake in moderate acute hypoxia in endurance athletes, 663?73. https, 2007.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4684-5481-9_22

C. Morris, C. O. Grada, M. Ryan, H. M. Roche, G. D. Vito et al., The relationship between aerobic fitness level and metabolic profiles in healthy adults, Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, vol.29, issue.7, pp.1246-54, 2013.
DOI : 10.1097/00005768-199705000-00007

J. K. Nicholson, J. C. Lindon, and E. E. Holmes, 'Metabonomics': understanding the metabolic responses of living systems to pathophysiological stimuli via multivariate statistical analysis of biological NMR spectroscopic data, Xenobiotica, vol.13, issue.11, pp.1181-89, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/0079-6565(89)80008-1

J. K. Nicholson, J. Connelly, J. C. Lindon, and E. Holmes, INNOVATIONMetabonomics: a platform for studying drug toxicity and gene function, Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol.1, issue.2, pp.153-61, 2002.
DOI : 10.1038/nrd728

J. K. Nicholson and I. D. Wilson, High resolution proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of biological fluids, Progress in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, vol.21, issue.4-5, pp.79-656580008, 1989.
DOI : 10.1016/0079-6565(89)80008-1

J. Nielsen, D. Bertrand, E. Micklander, P. Courcoux, and E. L. Munck, Study of NIR Spectra, Particle Size Distributions and Chemical Parameters of Wheat Flours: A Multi-Way Approach, Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy, vol.11, issue.4, p.275, 2001.
DOI : 10.1366/0003702894202201

D. C. Nieman, D. Nicholas, D. A. Gillitt, W. Henson, R. A. Sha et al., Bananas as an Energy Source during Exercise: A Metabolomics Approach, PLoS ONE, vol.25, issue.5 Pt 2, p.37479, 2012.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0037479.t002

T. D. Noakes, E. Juha, . Peltonen, K. Et-heikki, and . Rusko, « Evidence That a Central Governor Regulates Exercise Performance during Acute Hypoxia and Hyperoxia », Journal of Experimental Biology, vol.204, issue.18, pp.3225-3259, 2001.

«. Pls and /. Opls-models-in-metabolomics, The Impact of Permutation of Dataset Rows on the K-Fold Cross-Validation Quality Parameters »):13?19. https, Molecular BioSystems, vol.11, issue.1

S. G. Oliver, K. Michael, D. B. Winson, F. Kell, and . Baganz, Systematic functional analysis of the yeast genome, Trends in Biotechnology, vol.16, issue.9, pp.167-779901214, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0167-7799(98)01214-1

S. Park, Y. Kim, J. Kim, and J. Kim, Age-associated changes in fat metabolism in the rat and its relation to sympathetic activity, Life Sciences, vol.79, issue.23, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.lfs.2006.07.014

M. Parry-billings, E. Blomstrand, N. Mcandrew, and E. E. Newsholme, A Communicational Link Between Skeletal Muscle, Brain, and Cells of the Immune System, International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol.11, issue.S 2, pp.122-150, 1990.
DOI : 10.1055/s-2007-1024863

B. Pascal, . Auteur-du-texte, and . Florent, 16-16 ) Auteur du texte Perier. 1648 Récit de la grande expérience de l'équilibre des liqueurs, projectée par le sieur B. P. [Blaise Pascal] pour l'accomplissement du traicté qu'il a promis dans son abbrégé touchant le vuide, et faite par le sieur F. P. [Florent Perier] en une des plus hautes montagnes d'Auvergne, pp.1623-1662, 12148.

P. Bert, La pression barométrique: recherches de physiologie expérimentale, p.0, 1878.
DOI : 10.5962/bhl.title.104929

A. Pechlivanis, S. Kostidis, P. Saraslanidis, A. Petridou, G. Tsalis et al., H NMR-Based Metabonomic Investigation of the Effect of Two Different Exercise Sessions on the Metabolic Fingerprint of Human Urine, 1H NMR-Based Metabonomic Investigation of the Effect of Two Different Exercise Sessions on the Metabolic Fingerprint of Human Urine, pp.6405-6421, 2010.
DOI : 10.1021/pr100684t

A. Pechlivanis, S. Kostidis, P. Saraslanidis, A. Petridou, G. Tsalis et al., H NMR Study on the Short- and Long-Term Impact of Two Training Programs of Sprint Running on the Metabolic Fingerprint of Human Serum, Journal of Proteome Research, vol.12, issue.1, pp.470-80
DOI : 10.1021/pr300846x

J. E. Peltonen, A. P. Leppävuori, K. P. Kyrö, P. Mäkelä, and H. K. Rusko, Arterial haemoglobin oxygen saturation is affected by F1O2 at submaximal running velocities in elite athletes, Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, vol.65, issue.5, pp.265-71, 1999.
DOI : 10.1249/00005768-198604000-00004

J. E. Peltonen, H. K. Rusko, J. Rantamäki, K. Sweins, S. Niittymäki et al., Effects of oxygen fraction in inspired air on force production and electromyogram activity during ergometer rowing, Effects of Oxygen Fraction in Inspired Air on Force Production and Electromyogram Activity during Ergometer Rowing, pp.495-503, 1997.
DOI : 10.1007/s004210050281

J. E. Peltonen, H. O. Tikkanen, and H. K. Rusko, Cardiorespiratory responses to exercise in acute hypoxia, hyperoxia and normoxia, Cardiorespiratory Responses to Exercise in Acute Hypoxia, Hyperoxia and Normoxia, pp.82-88, 2001.
DOI : 10.1007/s004210100411

D. Penaloza and J. Arias-stella, The Heart and Pulmonary Circulation at High Altitudes: Healthy Highlanders and Chronic Mountain Sickness, Circulation, vol.115, issue.9, 2007.
DOI : 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.624544

F. Péronnet, G. Thibault, and D. L. Cousineau, A theoretical analysis of the effect of altitude on running performance, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.70, issue.1, pp.399-404, 1985.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1991.70.1.399

S. D. Phinney, B. R. Bistrian, W. J. Evans, E. Gervino, and G. L. Blackburn, The human metabolic response to chronic ketosis without caloric restriction: Preservation of submaximal exercise capability with reduced carbohydrate oxidation, Metabolism, vol.32, issue.8, pp.769-76, 1983.
DOI : 10.1016/0026-0495(83)90106-3

R. Plumb, J. Granger, C. Stumpf, I. D. Wilson, J. A. Evans et al., Metabonomic analysis of mouse urine by liquid-chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS): detection of strain, diurnal and gender differences, Diurnal and Gender Differences, pp.819-842, 2003.
DOI : 10.1039/b304296k

A. Podolsky, M. W. Eldridge, R. S. Richardson, D. R. Knight, E. C. Johnson et al., Exercise-induced VA/Q inequality in subjects with prior high-altitude pulmonary edema, Exercise-Induced VA/Q Inequality in Subjects with Prior High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema, pp.922-954, 1996.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1996.81.2.922

J. Poortmans and . Boisseau, Biochimie des activités physiques, 2003.

E. Qannari, I. Mostafa, P. Wakeling, . Courcoux, J. Et-halliday et al., « Defining the underlying sensory dimensions):151?54. https, Food Quality and Preference, vol.11, issue.199, pp.950-329300069, 2000.

. Ra, S. Song-gyu, R. Maeda, T. Higashino, S. Imai et al., Metabolomics of salivary fatigue markers in soccer players after consecutive games, Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism = Physiologie Appliquee1120?26. https, 2014.
DOI : 10.1152/japplphysiol.90816.2008

M. Reaves, . Louis, D. Joshua, and . Rabinowitz, « Metabolomics in systems microbiology »):17?25. https, Current Opinion in Biotechnology, Analytical biotechnology, vol.22, issue.1, 2011.

J. T. Reeves, B. M. Groves, J. R. Sutton, P. D. Wagner, A. Cymerman et al., Operation Everest II: preservation of cardiac function at extreme altitude, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.63, issue.2, pp.531-570, 1985.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1987.63.2.531

J. T. Reeves, R. S. Mazzeo, E. E. Wolfel, and A. J. Young, Increased Arterial Pressure after Acclimatization to 4300 m: Possible Role of Norepinephrine, International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol.13, issue.S 1, pp.18-21, 1992.
DOI : 10.1055/s-2007-1024581

L. M. Reid, Structure and Function in Pulmonary Hypertension, Chest, vol.89, issue.2, pp.279-88, 1986.
DOI : 10.1378/chest.89.2.279

A. J. Rice, T. Andrew, C. J. Thornton, G. C. Gore, H. W. Scroop et al., Pulmonary gas exchange during exercise in highly trained cyclists with arterial hypoxemia, Pulmonary Gas Exchange during Exercise in Highly Trained Cyclists with Arterial Hypoxemia, pp.1802-1814, 1999.
DOI : 10.1249/00005768-199112000-00006

J. P. Richalet, J. L. Le-trong, C. Rathat, P. Merlet, P. Bouissou et al., Reversal of hypoxia-induced decrease in human cardiac response to isoproterenol infusion, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.67, issue.2, pp.523-550, 1985.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1989.67.2.523

N. A. Richard and M. S. Koehle, Differences in Cardio-Ventilatory Responses to Hypobaric and Normobaric Hypoxia: A Review, Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, vol.83, issue.7, pp.677-84, 2012.
DOI : 10.3357/ASEM.3182.2012

R. C. Roach, J. A. Loeppky, and M. V. Icenogle, Acute mountain sickness: increased severity during simulated altitude compared with normobaric hypoxia, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.57, issue.5, 1985.
DOI : 10.1016/0034-5687(83)90079-8

A. C. Roberts, G. E. Butterfield, A. Cymerman, J. T. Reeves, E. E. Wolfel et al., Acclimatization to 4,300-m altitude decreases reliance on fat as a substrate, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.52, issue.21, pp.1762-71, 1996.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1992.73.6.2574

A. C. Roberts, J. T. Reeves, G. E. Butterfield, R. S. Mazzeo, J. R. Sutton et al., Altitude and beta-blockade augment glucose utilization during submaximal exercise, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.80, issue.2, pp.605-620, 1985.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1996.80.2.605

B. Saltin, R. F. Grover, C. Gunnar-blomqvist, L. H. Hartley, and R. L. Johnson, Maximal oxygen uptake and cardiac output after 2 weeks at 4,300 m, Maximal Oxygen Uptake and Cardiac Output after 2 Weeks at 4,300 M, pp.400-409, 1968.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1968.25.4.400

J. J. Saugy, L. Schmitt, R. Cejuela, R. Faiss, A. Hauser et al., Live High-Train Low, Normobaric versus Hypobaric Hypoxia, 114418.

F. Savorani, G. Tomasi, and S. B. Engelsen, icoshift: A versatile tool for the rapid alignment of 1D NMR spectra, Journal of Magnetic Resonance, vol.202, issue.2, pp.190-202, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jmr.2009.11.012

F. Savorani, G. Tomasi, and S. B. Engelsen, Alignment of 1D NMR Data using the iCoshift Tool: A Tutorial, Magnetic Resonance in Food Science, 14?24. https, pp.9781849737531-00014, 2013.
DOI : 10.1039/9781849737531-00014

G. Savourey, J. Launay, Y. Besnard, A. Guinet, . Et-stéphane et al., Normo- and hypobaric hypoxia: are there any physiological differences?, European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.89, issue.2, pp.122-148, 2003.
DOI : 10.1007/s00421-002-0789-8

M. N. Sawka, N. Samuel, R. W. Cheuvront, and . Kenefick, High skin temperature and hypohydration impair aerobic performance, Experimental Physiology, vol.67, issue.3, pp.327-359, 2012.
DOI : 10.1152/japplphysiol.00377.2010

R. B. Schoene, Control of Breathing at High Altitude, Respiration, vol.64, issue.6, pp.407-422, 1997.
DOI : 10.1159/000196716

R. B. Schoene, « Limits of Respiration at High Altitude » The Lung in Extreme Environments, Clinics in Chest Medicine, vol.26, issue.3, 2005.

K. Schommer, N. Wiesegart, E. Menold, U. Haas, K. Lahr et al., Training in Normobaric Hypoxia and Its Effects on Acute Mountain Sickness after Rapid Ascent to 4559???m, High Altitude Medicine & Biology, vol.11, issue.1, pp.19-25, 2010.
DOI : 10.1089/ham.2009.1019

L. Shepherd, P. Vt, D. Fraser, and . Stewart, Metabolomics: a second-generation platform for crop and food analysis, Bioanalysis, vol.6, issue.10, 2011.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2009.04030.x

M. Shimizu, K. Miyagawa, S. Iwashita, T. Noda, K. Hamada et al., Energy expenditure during 2-day trail walking in the mountains (2,857??m) and the effects of amino acid supplementation in older men and women, European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.41, issue.3, pp.1077-86, 2011.
DOI : 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181a9c452

F. Sime, D. Penaloza, L. Ruiz, N. Gonzales, E. Covarrubias et al., Hypoxemia, pulmonary hypertension, and low cardiac output in newcomers at low altitude, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.36, issue.5, pp.561-65, 1974.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1974.36.5.561

R. W. Squires, E. R. Et, and . Buskirk, Aerobic capacity during acute exposure to simulated altitude, 914 to 2286 meters, Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, vol.14, issue.1, pp.36-40, 1982.
DOI : 10.1249/00005768-198201000-00007

J. Stenberg, B. Ekblom, and E. R. Messin, Hemodynamic response to work at simulated altitude, 4,000 m., Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.21, issue.5, pp.1589-94, 1966.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1966.21.5.1589

A. Stowhas, T. D. Latshang, C. M. Lo-cascio, S. Lautwein, K. Stadelmann et al., Effects of Acute Exposure to Moderate Altitude on Vascular Function, Metabolism and Systemic Inflammation, PLoS ONE, vol.91, issue.8, 2013.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0070081.s002

M. B. Strauss, K. Robert, J. D. Davis, and E. C. Rosenbaum, ???WATER DIURESIS??? PRODUCED DURING RECUMBENCY BY THE INTRAVENOUS INFUSION OF ISOTONIC SALINE SOLUTION 1, WATER DIURESIS " PRODUCED DURING RECUMBENCY BY THE INTRAVENOUS INFUSION OF ISOTONIC SALINE SOLUTION 1, pp.862-68, 1951.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI102501

J. O. Stream and C. K. Grissom, Update on High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema: Pathogenesis, Prevention, and Treatment, Wilderness and Environmental Medicine, vol.19, issue.4, 2008.
DOI : 10.1580/07-WEME-REV-173.1

J. R. Sutton, J. T. Reeves, P. D. Wagner, B. M. Groves, A. Cymerman et al., Operation Everest II: oxygen transport during exercise at extreme simulated altitude, Operation Everest II: Oxygen Transport during Exercise at Extreme Simulated Altitude, pp.1309-1330, 1985.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1988.64.4.1309

M. C. Tissot-van-patot, N. J. Serkova, M. Haschke, D. J. Kominsky, R. C. Roach et al., Enhanced leukocyte HIF-1?? and HIF-1 DNA binding in humans after rapid ascent to 4300 m, Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol.46, issue.11, pp.1551-57, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2009.03.009

G. Tomasi, F. Savorani, B. Et-søren, and . Engelsen, icoshift: An effective tool for the alignment of chromatographic data, Journal of Chromatography A, vol.1218, issue.43, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.chroma.2011.08.086

J. R. Torre-bueno, P. D. Wagner, H. A. Saltzman, G. E. Gale, and R. E. Moon, Diffusion limitation in normal humans during exercise at sea level and simulated altitude, Diffusion Limitation in Normal Humans during Exercise at Sea Level and Simulated Altitude, pp.989-95, 1985.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1985.58.3.989

N. S. Trivedi, A. F. Ghouri, E. Lai, N. K. Shah, and S. J. Barker, Pulse oximeter performance during desaturation and resaturation: A comparison of seven models, Pulse Oximeter Performance during Desaturation and Resaturation: A Comparison of Seven Models, pp.184-88, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0952-8180(97)00037-8

J. M. Vallier, A. X. Bigard, F. Carré, J. P. Eclache, and E. J. Mercier, « Détermination des seuils lactiques et ventilatoires, Science & Sports, vol.15, issue.300, pp.765-159780017, 2000.

P. D. Wagner, Reduced maximal cardiac output at altitude ??? mechanisms and significance, Respiration Physiology, vol.120, issue.1, pp.1-11, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0034-5687(99)00101-2

P. D. Wagner, G. E. Gale, R. E. Moon, J. R. Torre-bueno, B. W. Stolp et al., Pulmonary gas exchange in humans exercising at sea level and simulated altitude, Pulmonary Gas Exchange in Humans Exercising at Sea Level and Simulated Altitude, pp.260-70, 1986.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1986.61.1.260

P. D. Wagner, J. R. Sutton, J. T. Reeves, A. Cymerman, B. M. Groves et al., Operation Everest II: pulmonary gas exchange during a simulated ascent of Mt. Everest, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.63, issue.6, pp.2348-59, 1985.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1987.63.6.2348

P. D. Wagner, M. Araoz, R. Boushel, A. L. José, B. Calbet et al., Pulmonary gas exchange and acid-base state at 5,260 m in high-altitude Bolivians and acclimatized lowlanders, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.74, issue.4, pp.1393-1400, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/0034-5687(95)00041-0

M. C. Walsh, L. Brennan, J. Paul, G. Malthouse, H. M. Roche et al., Effect of acute dietary standardization on the urinary, plasma, and salivary metabolomic profiles of healthy humans, Effect of Acute Dietary Standardization on the Urinary, Plasma, and Salivary Metabolomic Profiles of Healthy Humans, pp.531-570, 2006.
DOI : 10.1006/abio.2001.5211

K. Wasserman, B. J. Whipp, S. N. Koyl, and W. L. Beaver, Anaerobic threshold and respiratory gas exchange during exercise., Anaerobic Threshold and Respiratory Gas Exchange during Exercise, pp.236-279, 1973.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1973.35.2.236

E. Weber and . Haman, Oxidative fuel selection: adjusting mix and flux to stay alive, Consulté le 28 juillet 2017, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ics.2004.09.043

J. Weber, Metabolic fuels: regulating fluxes to select mix, Journal of Experimental Biology, vol.214, issue.2, 2011.
DOI : 10.1242/jeb.047050

J. Wehrlin, . Peter, and . Et-jostein-hallén, « Linear Decrease in VO2max and Performance with Increasing Altitude in Endurance Athletes, European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.96, issue.4, 2006.

J. B. West, Robert Boyle???s landmark book of 1660 with the first experiments on rarified air, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.98, issue.1, pp.31-39, 1985.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1999.87.4.1543

J. A. Westerhuis, J. Ewoud, . Van-velzen, C. Huub, . Hoefsloot et al., Multivariate paired data analysis: multilevel PLSDA versus OPLSDA, Metabolomics, vol.46, issue.2, pp.119-128, 2010.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1099-128X(199609)10:5/6<521::AID-CEM448>3.0.CO;2-J

R. E. Williams, M. Eva, J. A. Lenz, I. D. Evans, J. H. Wilson et al., A combined 1H NMR and HPLC???MS-based metabonomic study of urine from obese (fa/fa) Zucker and normal Wistar-derived rats, Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, vol.38, issue.3, pp.465-71, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jpba.2005.01.013

J. H. Wilmore, L. David, L. Costill, and . Kenney, Physiologie du sport et de l'exercice, 2017.

D. S. Wishart, Current Progress in computational metabolomics, Current Progress in Computational Metabolomics, pp.279-93, 2007.
DOI : 10.1093/bib/bbm030

E. E. Wolfel, B. M. Groves, G. A. Brooks, G. E. Butterfield, R. S. Mazzeo et al., Oxygen transport during steady-state submaximal exercise in chronic hypoxia, Oxygen Transport during Steady-State Submaximal Exercise in Chronic Hypoxia, pp.1129-1165, 1985.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1991.70.3.1129

C. A. Wyss, P. Koepfli, G. Fretz, M. Seebauer, C. Schirlo et al., Influence of Altitude Exposure on Coronary Flow Reserve, Circulation, vol.108, issue.10, 2003.
DOI : 10.1161/01.CIR.0000087432.63671.2E

B. Yan, A. Jiye, G. Wang, H. Lu, X. Huang et al., Metabolomic investigation into variation of endogenous metabolites in professional athletes subject to strength-endurance training, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.106, issue.2, pp.531-569, 2008.
DOI : 10.1021/pr060256p

A. Zahariev, A. Bergouignan, M. Caloin, S. Normand, G. Gauquelin-koch et al., Skinfold thickness versus isotope dilution for body fat assessment during simulated microgravity: results from three bed-rest campaigns in men and women with and without countermeasures, European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.69, issue.5, pp.344-50, 2005.
DOI : 10.1007/s004240000352

P. Bouissou, C. Guezennec, G. Defer, and P. Pesquies, Oxygen Consumption, Lactate Accumulation, and Sympathetic Response During Prolonged Exercise Under Hypoxia, International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol.08, issue.04, pp.266-269, 1987.
DOI : 10.1055/s-2008-1025667

B. Braun, J. T. Mawson, S. R. Muza, S. B. Dominick, G. A. Brooks et al., Women at altitude: carbohydrate utilization during exercise at 4,300 m, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.52, issue.1, pp.246-256, 2000.
DOI : 10.1152/ajpendo.1994.266.6.E921

G. A. Brooks, G. E. Butterfield, R. R. Wolfe, B. M. Groves, R. S. Mazzeo et al., Increased dependence on blood glucose after acclimatization to 4,300 m, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.70, issue.2, pp.919-927, 1991.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1991.70.2.919

G. A. Brooks and J. Mercier, Balance of carbohydrate and lipid utilization during exercise: the "crossover" concept, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.76, issue.6, pp.2253-2261, 1994.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1994.76.6.2253

E. Chorell, T. Moritz, S. Branth, H. Antti, and M. B. Svensson, Predictive Metabolomics Evaluation of Nutrition-Modulated Metabolic Stress Responses in Human Blood Serum During the Early Recovery Phase of Strenuous Physical Exercise, Journal of Proteome Research, vol.8, issue.6, pp.2966-297710, 1021.
DOI : 10.1021/pr900081q

F. Dieterle, A. Ross, G. Schlotterbeck, and H. Senn, H NMR Metabonomics, Analytical Chemistry, vol.78, issue.13, pp.4281-4290, 2006.
DOI : 10.1021/ac051632c

E. Ferrannini, The theoretical bases of indirect calorimetry: A review, Metabolism, vol.37, issue.3, pp.287-301, 1988.
DOI : 10.1016/0026-0495(88)90110-2

H. Gao, B. Dong, X. Liu, H. Xuan, Y. Huang et al., Metabonomic profiling of renal cell carcinoma: High-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of human serum with multivariate data analysis, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol.624, issue.2, pp.269-277, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.aca.2008.06.051

A. Gaston, F. Durand, E. Roca, G. Doucende, I. Hapkova et al., Exercise-Induced Hypoxaemia Developed at Sea-Level Influences Responses to Exercise at Moderate Altitude, PLOS ONE, vol.17, issue.9, 2016.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0161819.s003

C. J. Gore, S. C. Little, A. G. Hahn, G. C. Scroop, K. I. Norton et al., Reduced performance of male and female athletes at 580?m altitude, European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.75, issue.2, pp.136-14310, 1007.
DOI : 10.1007/s004210050138

J. A. Hawley, K. H. Myburgh, T. D. Noakes, D. , and S. C. , Training techniques to improve fatigue resistance and enhance endurance performance, Journal of Sports Sciences, vol.75, issue.3, pp.325-333, 1997.
DOI : 10.1007/s004210050119

P. C. Hinkle, M. A. Kumar, A. Resetar, H. , and D. L. , Mechanistic stoichiometry of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, Biochemistry, vol.30, issue.14, pp.3576-3582, 1991.
DOI : 10.1021/bi00228a031

J. F. Horowitz and S. Klein, Lipid metabolism during endurance exercise, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol.67, issue.2, pp.558-563, 2000.
DOI : 10.1152/jappl.1996.80.6.2217

E. Jansson, On the significance of the respiratory exchange ratio after different diets during exercise in man, Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, vol.57, issue.1, 1982.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4613-4609-8_18

K. Katayama, K. Goto, K. Ishida, and F. Ogita, Substrate utilization during exercise and recovery at moderate altitude, Metabolism, vol.59, issue.7, pp.959-966, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.metabol.2009.10.017

G. M. Kirwan, V. G. Coffey, J. O. Niere, J. A. Hawley, A. et al., Spectroscopic correlation analysis of NMR-based metabonomics in exercise science, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol.652, issue.1-2, pp.173-179, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.aca.2009.07.011

E. M. Lenz, W. , and I. D. , Analytical Strategies in Metabonomics, Journal of Proteome Research, vol.6, issue.2, pp.443-458, 2007.
DOI : 10.1021/pr0605217

L. Levin, W. Gevers, L. Jardine, F. J. De-guel, D. et al., Serum amino acids in weight-losing patients with cancer and tuberculosis, European Journal of Cancer and Clinical Oncology, vol.19, issue.6, pp.711-715, 1983.
DOI : 10.1016/0277-5379(83)90002-0

B. Lou, P. Wu, Y. Liu, W. , and J. , Effects of Acute Systematic Hypoxia on Human Urinary Metabolites Using LC-MS-Based Metabolomics, High Altitude Medicine & Biology, vol.15, issue.2, pp.192-202, 2014.
DOI : 10.1089/ham.2013.1130

C. Lundby, V. Hall, and G. , Substrate utilization in sea level residents during exercise in acute hypoxia and after 4 weeks of acclimatization to 4100 m, Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, vol.63, issue.3, pp.195-201, 2002.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00364456

R. S. Mazzeo, Physiological Responses to Exercise at Altitude, Sports Medicine, vol.97, issue.6, pp.1-8, 2008.
DOI : 10.2165/00007256-200838010-00001

A. Miccheli, F. Marini, G. Capuani, A. T. Miccheli, M. Delfini et al., The Influence of a Sports Drink on the Postexercise Metabolism of Elite Athletes as Investigated by NMR-Based Metabolomics, Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol.8, issue.2, pp.553-564, 2009.
DOI : 10.1021/pr900081q

P. Mollard, X. Woorons, M. Letournel, C. Lamberto, F. Favret et al., Determinants of maximal oxygen uptake in moderate acute hypoxia in endurance athletes, European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.37, issue.suppl. 3, 2007.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4684-5481-9_22

P. Nahon, R. Amathieu, M. N. Triba, N. Bouchemal, J. Nault et al., Identification of Serum Proton NMR Metabolomic Fingerprints Associated with Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Alcoholic Cirrhosis, Clinical Cancer Research, vol.18, issue.24, 2012.
DOI : 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-1099

N. Triba, M. Moyec, L. L. Amathieu, R. Goossens, C. Bouchemal et al., PLS/OPLS models in metabolomics: the impact of permutation of dataset rows on the K-fold cross-validation quality parameters, Molecular BioSystems, vol.2, issue.1, pp.13-1910, 2015.
DOI : 10.1007/s11306-006-0037-z

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01251268

M. Parry-billings, E. Blomstrand, N. Mcandrew, and E. Newsholme, A Communicational Link Between Skeletal Muscle, Brain, and Cells of the Immune System, International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol.11, issue.S 2, pp.122-128, 1990.
DOI : 10.1055/s-2007-1024863

E. Pohjanen, E. Thysell, P. Jonsson, C. Eklund, A. Silfver et al., A Multivariate Screening Strategy for Investigating Metabolic Effects of Strenuous Physical Exercise in Human Serum, Journal of Proteome Research, vol.6, issue.6, pp.2113-2120, 2007.
DOI : 10.1021/pr070007g

J. A. Westerhuis, E. J. Van-velzen, H. C. Hoefsloot, and A. K. Smilde, Multivariate paired data analysis: multilevel PLSDA versus OPLSDA, Metabolomics, vol.46, issue.2, pp.119-128, 2010.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1099-128X(199609)10:5/6<521::AID-CEM448>3.0.CO;2-J

URL : https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs11306-009-0185-z.pdf

N. Wilson, Metabolomics, Metabonomics and Metabolite Profiling, 2008.

D. S. Wishart, Current Progress in computational metabolomics, Briefings in Bioinformatics, vol.8, issue.5, pp.279-293, 2007.
DOI : 10.1093/bib/bbm030

B. Yan, A. , J. Wang, G. Lu, H. Huang et al., Metabolomic investigation into variation of endogenous metabolites in professional athletes subject to strength-endurance training, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.106, issue.2, pp.531-538, 2008.
DOI : 10.1021/pr060256p