H. Becquerel, Sur les radiations émises par phosphorescence, Comptes Rendus, vol.122, pp.420-421, 1896.

W. C. Röntgen, ON A NEW KIND OF RAYS, Science, vol.3, issue.59, pp.227-231, 1896.
DOI : 10.1126/science.3.59.227

K. Kosaki, S. Ecker, D. Habermehl, S. Rieken, O. Jäkel et al., Comparison of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with intensity modulated particle therapy (IMPT) using fixed beams or an ion gantry for the treatment of patients with skull base meningiomas, Radiation Oncology, vol.7, issue.1, p.44, 2012.
DOI : 10.1002/cncr.24153

C. Le-sech, K. Kobayashi, N. Usami, Y. Furusawa, E. Porcel et al., Comment on ???Therapeutic application of metallic nanoparticles combined with particle-induced x-ray emission effect???, Nanotechnology, vol.23, issue.7, p.78001, 2012.
DOI : 10.1088/0957-4484/23/7/078001

J. M. Currell, D. G. Sullivan, and . Hirst, Cell-specific radiosensitization by gold nanoparticles at megavoltage radiation energies, International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol.79, pp.531-539, 2011.

E. Surdutovich, A. V. Yakubovich, and A. V. Solov-'yov, Multiscale approach to radiation damage induced by ion beams: complex DNA damage and effects of thermal spikes, The European Physical Journal D, vol.130, issue.200, pp.101-108, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2008.02.037

E. Surdutovich, A. V. Yakubovich, and A. V. Solov-'yov, Biodamage via shock waves initiated by irradiation with ions, Scientific Reports, vol.18, issue.177, p.1289, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.str.2010.01.015

F. James, . Hainfeld, N. Daniel, . Slatkin, M. Henry et al., The use of gold nanoparticles to enhance radiotherapy in mice, Physics in Medicine Biology, issue.18, pp.49-309, 2004.

F. Lawrence and H. P. Driessen-wouter, Arap Wadih; Pasqualini Renata; Gillin Michael Polf, Jerimy C.; Bronk. Enhanced relative biological effectiveness of proton radiotherapy in tumor cells with internalized gold nanoparticles, Applied Physics Letters, p.98, 2011.

X. Su, P. Liu, H. Wu, and N. Gu, Enhancement of radiosensitization by metal-based nanoparticles in cancer radiation therapy, Cancer Biol. Med, vol.11, pp.86-91, 2014.

D. Kwatra, A. Venugopal, and S. Anant, Nanoparticles in radiation therapy: a summary of various approaches to enhance radiosensitization in cancer, Translational Cancer Research, vol.2, issue.4, p.2013

L. ?tefan?íková, S. Lacombe, D. Salado, E. Porcel, E. Pagá?ová et al., Effect of gadolinium-based nanoparticles on nuclear DNA damage and repair in glioblastoma tumor cells, Journal of Nanobiotechnology, vol.110, issue.Suppl A, p.63, 2016.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bpj.2016.01.005

S. X. Zhang, J. Gao, T. A. Buchholz, Z. Wang, M. R. Salehpour et al., Quantifying tumor-selective radiation dose enhancements using gold nanoparticles: a monte carlo simulation study, Biomedical Microdevices, vol.14, issue.4), p.925, 2009.
DOI : 10.1177/153303460500400606

E. Porcel, S. Liehn, H. Remita, N. Usami, K. Kobayashi et al., Platinum nanoparticles: a promising material for future cancer therapy?, Nanotechnology, vol.21, issue.8, p.85103, 2010.
DOI : 10.1088/0957-4484/21/8/085103

V. Alexey, A. V. Verkhovtsev, A. V. Korol, and . Solov-'yov, Electron production by sensitizing gold nanoparticles irradiated by fast ions, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol.119, pp.11000-11013, 2015.

J. Conde, G. Doria, and P. Baptista, Noble Metal Nanoparticles Applications in Cancer, Journal of Drug Delivery, vol.4, issue.2, p.751075, 2012.
DOI : 10.3109/17435390.2010.489207

C. A. Hoffman, J. R. Meyer, F. J. Bartoli, A. Di-venere, X. J. Yi et al., Semimetal-to-semiconductor transition in bismuth thin films, Physical Review B, vol.1, issue.15, pp.11431-11434, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0749-6036(85)90022-9

M. Hossain and M. Su, Nanoparticle Location and Material-Dependent Dose Enhancement in X-ray Radiation Therapy, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol.116, issue.43, pp.23047-23052, 2012.
DOI : 10.1021/jp306543q

F. Chandezon, C. Guet, B. A. Huber, D. Jalabert, M. Maurel et al., Critical Sizes against Coulomb Dissociation of Highly Charged Sodium Clusters Obtained by Ion Impact, Physical Review Letters, vol.68, issue.19, p.3784, 1995.
DOI : 10.1063/1.436003

P. Blaise, S. A. Blundell, C. Guet, and R. R. Zope, Charge-Induced Fragmentation of Sodium Clusters, Physical Review Letters, vol.94, issue.6, p.63401, 2001.
DOI : 10.1063/1.460096

T. Schlathölter, F. Alvarado, S. Bari, A. Lecointre, R. Hoekstra et al., Ion-Induced Biomolecular Radiation Damage: From Isolated Nucleobases to Nucleobase Clusters, ChemPhysChem, vol.95, issue.11, pp.2339-2345, 2006.
DOI : 10.1002/cphc.200600361

B. Manil, L. Maunoury, B. A. Huber, J. Jensen, H. T. Schmidt et al., Highly Charged Clusters of Fullerenes: Charge Mobility and Appearance Sizes, Physical Review Letters, vol.35, issue.21, p.215504, 2003.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevA.63.025201

H. Weber, R. Schmidt-böcking, and . Dörner, Ultrafast energy transfer between water molecules, Nature Physics, vol.6, pp.139-142, 2010.

M. Mucke, M. Braune, S. Barth, M. Förstel, T. Lischke et al., A hitherto unrecognized source of low-energy electrons in water, Nature Physics, vol.156, issue.2, pp.143-146, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.elspec.2006.11.062

R. Maisonny, . Capron, J. Maclot, . Poully, . Domaracka et al., Ion interactions with pure and mixed water clusters, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol.438, issue.1, p.12007, 2013.
DOI : 10.1088/1742-6596/438/1/012007

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01215257

B. Liu, S. Brøndsted-nielsen, P. Hvelplund, H. Zettergren, H. Cederquist et al., Collision-Induced Dissociation of Hydrated Adenosine Monophosphate Nucleotide Ions: Protection of the Ion in Water Nanoclusters, Physical Review Letters, vol.246, issue.13, p.133401, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/S0168-1176(97)00162-6

P. Markush, P. Bolognesi, A. Cartoni, P. Rousseau, S. Maclot et al., The role of the environment in the ion induced fragmentation of uracil, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol.13, issue.606, pp.16721-16729, 2016.
DOI : 10.1002/cphc.201200015

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01343058

N. Kim, Y. S. Kim, G. Jeong, T. Kyu-ahn, and S. Kim, Hydration of DNA base cations in the gas phase, International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, vol.219, issue.1, pp.11-21, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S1387-3806(02)00547-X

A. Domaracka, M. Capron, S. Maclot, J. Chesnel, A. Méry et al., Ion interaction with biomolecular systems and the effect of the environment, Phys.: Conf. Series, p.12005, 2012.
DOI : 10.1088/1742-6596/373/1/012005

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01084767

G. Rizza, P. E. Coulon, V. Khomenkov, C. Dufour, I. Monnet et al., Rational description of the ion-beam shaping mechanism, Physical Review B, vol.86, issue.3, p.35450, 2012.
DOI : 10.1088/0953-8984/6/34/006

G. Rizza, H. Cheverry, T. Gacoin, A. Lamasson, and S. Henry, control of size and spatial distribution, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.647, issue.1, p.14321, 2007.
DOI : 10.1209/epl/i1997-00404-8

V. Bechtold, N. Chan-tung, S. Dousson, R. Geller, B. Jaquot et al., ECR ion source for multiply-charged oxygen beams, Nuclear Instruments and Methods, vol.178, issue.2-3, p.305, 1980.
DOI : 10.1016/0029-554X(80)90807-1

Y. Higurashi, T. Nakagawa, M. Kidera, T. Kageyama, T. Aihara et al., Optimization of magnetic field configuration for the production of Ar ions from RIKEN 18 GHz ECR ion source, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, vol.510, issue.3, p.206, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0168-9002(03)01815-1

R. Geller, Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source and ECR Plasmas, Institute of Physics. Publishing, 1996.

D. Hitz, G. Melin, and A. Girard, Fundamental aspects of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources: From classical to large superconducting devices (invited), Review of Scientific Instruments, vol.1, issue.2, p.839, 2000.
DOI : 10.1143/JJAP.30.L930

I. Yamada, H. Usui, and T. Takagi, The formation and kinetics of Ionized Cluster Beams, Zeitschrift f???r Physik D Atoms, Molecules and Clusters, vol.7, issue.2-3, p.137, 1986.
DOI : 10.1007/BF01384798

W. Lotz, Electron-impact ionization cross-sections and ionization rate coefficients for atoms and ions from hydrogen to calcium, Zeitschrift f???r Physik, vol.216, issue.3, p.241, 1968.
DOI : 10.1007/BF01392963

A. Mueller, E. Salzborn, R. Frodi, R. Becker, H. Klein et al., (i=1,...,5) ions, Journal of Physics B: Atomic and Molecular Physics, vol.13, issue.9, p.1877, 1980.
DOI : 10.1088/0022-3700/13/9/018

M. Asakawa-hitoshi-tanaka-takashi-maekawa-masaki, S. Uchida, Y. Fukumoto, and . Terumichi, Electron cyclotron resonance plasma produced with a closed spheroidal electron cyclotron resonance surface in a simple cusp field, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, issue.8A, pp.38-885, 1999.

E. W. Becker, K. Bier, and W. Henkes, Strahlen aus kondensierten Atomen und Molekeln im Hochvakuum, Zeitschrift f???r Physik, vol.146, issue.3, p.333, 1956.
DOI : 10.1007/BF01330428

H. Haberland, Clusters of Atoms and Molecules Theory, Experiment, and Clusters of Atoms, Series in Chemical Physics, 1994.

V. Bernigaud, Etude de la fragmentation de molécules d'intérêt biologique isolées et nanosolvatées induite par collision avec des ions multichargés et des particules neutres, 2009.

F. Chandezon, B. Huber, and C. Ristori, A new???regime Wiley???McLaren time???of???flight mass spectrometer, Review of Scientific Instruments, vol.37, issue.11, pp.3344-3353, 1994.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.63.1368

C. Bréchignac, . Ph, and . Cahuzac, Threshold behavior of laser ionization spectra for small potassium clusters, Chemical Physics Letters, vol.117, issue.4, pp.365-370, 1985.
DOI : 10.1016/0009-2614(85)85245-3

C. Bréchignac, . Ph, F. Cahuzac, M. Carlier, A. De-frutos et al., Generation of rare earth metal clusters by means of the gas-aggregation technique, Molecules and Clusters, vol.19, pp.195-197, 1991.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-642-76178-2_47

C. B. Alcock, V. P. Itkin, and M. K. Horrigan, Vapour Pressure Equations for the Metallic Elements: 298???2500K, Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, vol.38, issue.3, pp.309-313, 1984.
DOI : 10.1016/0021-9614(83)90053-8

. Ch, H. R. Siekmann, J. Lüder, H. O. Faehrmann, K. H. Lutz et al., The pulsed arc cluster ion source (pacis) Zeitschrift fur Physik D Atoms [54] H. Haberland. Filling of micron-sized contact holes with copper by energetic cluster impact, Molecules and Clusters Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A Vacuum Surfaces and Films, vol.20, issue.12, pp.417-4202925, 1991.

. Huber, Production of pulsed, mass-selected beams of metal and semiconductor clusters, Review of Scientific Instruments, vol.79, p.63301, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/cea-00374093

P. Sigmund, Theory of Sputtering. I. Sputtering Yield of Amorphous and Polycrystalline Targets, Physical Review, vol.126, issue.2, pp.383-416, 1969.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRev.126.1267

O. Almen and G. Bruce, Sputtering experiments in the high energy region, Nuclear Instruments and Methods, vol.11, pp.279-289, 1961.
DOI : 10.1016/0029-554X(61)90027-1

N. Laegreid and G. K. Wehner, Ions with Energies from 50 to 600 ev, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.32, issue.3, pp.365-369, 1969.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.4.409

O. Kamalou, Faisceau d'agrégats sélectionés en taille: Réalisation et premiers experiences, 2007.

N. R. Daly, Scintillation Type Mass Spectrometer Ion Detector, Review of Scientific Instruments, vol.8, issue.3, pp.264-267, 1960.
DOI : 10.1063/1.1715719

H. P. Winter, M. Vana, G. Betz, F. Aumayr, H. Drexel et al., Suppression of potential electron emission for impact of slow multicharged fullerenes on clean gold, Physical Review A, vol.81, issue.4, pp.3007-3010, 1997.
DOI : 10.1063/1.448118

F. Thum and H. W. , No enhanced electron emission from high-density atomic collision cascades in metals, Surface Science, vol.90, issue.2, pp.331-338, 1979.
DOI : 10.1016/0039-6028(79)90347-9

P. Reinhard and E. Suraud, Introduction to Cluster Dynamics, 2003.
DOI : 10.1002/9783527602520

M. Brack, The physics of simple metal clusters: self-consistent jellium model and semiclassical approaches, Reviews of Modern Physics, vol.21, issue.3, p.677, 1993.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevA.21.1561

L. Plagne and C. Guet, Highly ionized but weakly excited metal clusters in collisions with multicharged ions, Physical Review A, vol.8, issue.6, pp.4461-4469, 1999.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevA.55.479

B. H. Brandsen and M. R. Mcdowell, Charge exchange and Theory of Ion-Atom Collisions, 1992.

H. Ryufuku, K. Sasaki, and T. Watanabe, Oscillatory behavior of charge transfer cross sections as a function of the charge of projectiles in low-energy collisions, Physical Review A, vol.11, issue.3, p.745, 1980.
DOI : 10.1088/0022-3700/11/8/016

A. Niehaus, A classical model for multiple-electron capture in slow collisions of highly charged ions with atoms, Journal of Physics B: Atomic and Molecular Physics, vol.19, issue.18, p.2925, 1986.
DOI : 10.1088/0022-3700/19/18/021

J. Burgdörfer, P. Lerner, and F. W. Meyer, Above-surface neutralization of highly charged ions: The classical over-the-barrier model, Physical Review A, vol.43, issue.57, p.5674, 1991.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevA.43.6027

S. Tomita, H. Lebius, A. Brenac, F. Chandezon, and B. A. Huber, Energetics in charge-separation processes of highly charged fullerene ions, Physical Review A, vol.63, issue.6, p.63204, 2003.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevA.63.051201

D. Duft, T. Achtzehn, R. Müller, B. A. Huber, and T. Leisner, Rayleigh jets from levitated microdroplets, Nature, vol.89, issue.6919, p.128, 2003.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.89.084503

T. Bergen, X. Biquard, A. Brenac, F. Chandezon, B. A. Huber et al., Multiply charged cluster ion crossed-beam apparatus: Multi-ionization of clusters by ion impact, Review of Scientific Instruments, vol.416, issue.8, pp.703244-3253, 1999.
DOI : 10.1007/s004600050217

C. Bréchignac, . Ph, F. Cahuzac, J. Carlier, A. Leygnier et al., Unimolecular Coulombic fission in doubly charged alkali-metal clusters, Physical Review B, vol.86, issue.20, pp.11386-11393, 1991.
DOI : 10.1063/1.452005

U. Näher, S. Bj{ornholm, S. Frauendorf, F. Garcias, and C. Guet, Fission of metal clusters, Physics Reports, vol.285, issue.6, pp.245-320, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0370-1573(96)00040-3

M. Chen, J. E. Dyer, K. Li, and D. A. Dixon, < 100, The Journal of Physical Chemistry A, vol.117, issue.34, pp.8298-8313, 2013.
DOI : 10.1021/jp404493w

R. Kelting, A. Baldes, U. Schwarz, T. Rapps, D. Schooss et al., Structures of small bismuth cluster cations, The Journal of Chemical Physics, vol.11, issue.2, p.154309, 2012.
DOI : 10.1007/s10876-011-0379-1

C. Bréchignac, . Ph, F. Cahuzac, M. Carlier, and . De-frutos, around the critical size of stability, Physical Review Letters, vol.61, issue.24, pp.2893-2896, 1990.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.61.535

J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack, and U. Littmark, The stopping and range of ions in solids, 1985.

G. Sanna and G. Tomassetti, Introduction To Molecular Beams Gas Dynamics, 2005.
DOI : 10.1142/p387

A. Hoareau, P. Melinon, B. Cabaud, D. Rayane, B. Tribollet et al., Fragmentation of singly and doubly charged lead clusters, Chemical Physics Letters, vol.143, issue.6, p.602, 1988.
DOI : 10.1016/0009-2614(88)87075-1

J. Ma, J. Ma, R. Xu, R. Xu, J. Sun et al., Xinchen Sun, and Xinchen Sun. Nanoparticle surface and nanocore properties determine the effect on radiosensitivity of cancer cells upon ionizing radiation treatment, Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, issue.602, pp.131472-131477, 2013.

P. Liu, H. Jin, Z. Guo, J. Ma, J. Zhao et al., Silver nanoparticles outperform gold nanoparticles in radiosensitizing U251 cells in vitro and in an intracranial mouse model of glioma, International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol.11, pp.5003-5014, 2016.
DOI : 10.2147/IJN.S115473

S. Krückeberg, G. Dietrich, K. Lützenkirchen, L. Schweikhard, C. Walther et al., Collision induced dissociation of doubly charged silver clusters ag 2+ n , n=21, Hyperfine Interactions, vol.2223, issue.1081, pp.107-114, 1997.

W. Harbich and C. Félix, Mass selected cluster deposition in strongly or weakly interacting media, Comptes Rendus Physique, vol.3, issue.3, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S1631-0705(02)01320-8

A. Wucher and M. Wahl, Cluster emission in sputtering, Conference Invited Lecture Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, pp.65-72, 1997.

I. Katakuse, T. Ichihara, Y. Fujita, T. Matsuo, T. Sakurai et al., Mass distributions of copper, silver and gold clusters and electronic shell structure, International Journal of Mass Spectrometry and Ion Processes, vol.67, issue.2, pp.229-236, 1985.
DOI : 10.1016/0168-1176(85)80021-5

T. T. Järvi, J. A. Pakarinen, A. Kuronen, and K. Nordlund, Enhanced sputtering from nanoparticles and thin films: Size effects, EPL (Europhysics Letters), vol.82, issue.2, p.26002, 2008.
DOI : 10.1209/0295-5075/82/26002

L. Sandoval and H. M. Urbassek, Collision-spike Sputtering of Au Nanoparticles, Nanoscale Research Letters, vol.13, issue.5, p.314, 2015.
DOI : 10.1021/nl304659n

N. Matsunami, Y. Yamamura, Y. Itikawa, N. Itoh, Y. Kazumata et al., Energy dependence of the ion-induced sputtering yields of monatomic solids, Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables, vol.31, issue.1
DOI : 10.1016/0092-640X(84)90016-0

A. Mika, R. Delaunay, A. Domaracka, M. Gatchell, H. Zettergren et al., Huber Ion induced chemistry in pure and mixed van der Waals clusters of coronene and C60 fullerene molecules to be submitted Concerning the thesis work directly, several publications are submitted or to be submitted

M. Bolsa, V. Iv?oseviv?osev, K. Haume, L. Ellis-gibbings, A. Traore et al., Review article in 'Nanoscale Insights into Ion Beam Cancer Therapy, pp.379-434, 2017.

A. Mika, P. Rousseau, A. Domaracka, and B. A. Huber, Fragmentation and Multi- Ionization of Large Bi-Clusters by Multiply Charged Ions To be submitted to Phys

?. , ?. , ?. , ?. , ?. et al., ?? ???r??? s?st??s? ?? t?? ?? ??s? ? ??r?? ?r??t??? ?r?????ts ?? ?s????tr?? ?ss??? ???tt??? s???? s????? ???r??? ?r?????ts? ?? t?? ??s? ?? ??r?? ?? ??????rt????s ???t???? ???r??? s?st??s ?r? st????? ??????r? s???? s??? ?r??