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Etude des bases neurales de la catégorisation chez les sujets sains et les patients cérébro-lésés

Abstract : Categorization is a set of mental processes that allow classifying objects and events. It is crucial in various contexts such as survival in animals, concept learning in children, abstract reasoning and problem solving. Patients with brain lesions involving the prefrontal cortex are impaired in categorization tasks. Categorization impairment correlates with functional autonomy in dementia. In the first part, we have developed a task, named SimiCat that we designed in order to assess categorization abilities in patients. With the help of this task, we showed that differentiation errors are specific of frontal patients. The SimiCat task has a good diagnostic value to distinguish behavior variant Frontotemporal dementia from Alzheimer disease.In the second part, we assessed the brain correlates of categorization. With functional MRI, we showed that abstraction involves the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, while similarity detection involves bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. With voxel-based morphometry we showed that variability in categorization performances correlates with the volume of the right anterior temporal lobe, with a caudo-rostral gradient according to abstraction. In the third part, we developed a double priming task that we will use to assess automatic categorization processes in patients with temporal and frontal lesions. Based on these results, we propose a model of brain organization for categorization. This model involves both anterior temporal lobes, as well as bilateral ventrolateral and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Our results also contribute to a better understanding and management of patients suffering from categorization deficits.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01743803
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Submitted on : Monday, March 26, 2018 - 4:54:47 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, August 20, 2020 - 3:05:25 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Thursday, September 13, 2018 - 9:36:43 AM

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  • HAL Id : tel-01743803, version 1

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Béatrice Garcin. Etude des bases neurales de la catégorisation chez les sujets sains et les patients cérébro-lésés. Neurosciences [q-bio.NC]. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PA066371⟩. ⟨tel-01743803⟩

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