Mesure des corrélations photon-hadron auprès de l'expérience ALICE au LHC pour l'étude du plasma de quarks et de gluons

Abstract : The quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the theory used at present to describe the strong interaction, predicts the existence of a phase transition, at very high temperature and/or density, towards a state of nuclear matter where quarks and gluons are deconfined : the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). Such a medium can be produced in laboratory, and the measurement of its properties allows to give a new perspective on the mechanisms of interactions between the constituents as well as to test the QCD in unexplored domains.Ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions delivered by the accelerator LHC at CERN allow to obtain the thermodynamical conditions necessary for the QGP to be formed. By means of a diversified instrumentation, the ALICE experiment allows to reach a large number of observables allowing to characterize the QGP. Among these, the measurement of the fragmentation of the partons (quarks and gluons) allows to study in detail the mechanisms of energy loss in the medium and its redistribution in the final state, and can also be compared with theoretical calculations, based on QCD, that model the interaction of an energetic parton with the QGP which is passing through.The work presented in this manuscript is articulated around the study of the fragmentation function via the measurement of the photon-hadron correlations in proton-proton and proton-Lead collisions. At first, a work on energy calibration of the ALICE experiment’s electromagnetic calorimeter was realized, along with the characterization of the uncertainties of this calibration. Secondly, the photon-hadron correlations, whose main difficulty is the identification of the direct photons, were studied. The results obtained in both systems of collisions demonstrate the feasibility of the analysis which can be easily widened to the peripheral Lead-Lead collisions. Finally, this work shows that the dominant uncertainties of the measurement will be reducible with the new data delivered by the LHC.
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Astrid Vauthier. Mesure des corrélations photon-hadron auprès de l'expérience ALICE au LHC pour l'étude du plasma de quarks et de gluons. Physique des Hautes Energies - Expérience [hep-ex]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017GREAY062⟩. ⟨tel-01743801⟩

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