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Esquisse d'une théorie de l'identité libérale

Abstract : We have first led a study of A Theory of Justice and other works by John Rawls (Political Liberalism, Justice et démocratie, Collected Papers, etc.)which offers us a picture of a representative contemporary ideal democracy built on an original version of social contract, a contract aiming at the Just (the Good being left to each individual's discretion). This study gives us the opportunity to release the defining caracteristics of the liberal individual ("liberal" taken in the american use of the word)such as he has to be represented in order to be a plausible contractor in search what is justice going to be once he will have determined the fundamental principles of society. The partner's liberal identity, as he is contracting and deliberating on the principles,establishes the foudation of the contemporary individual's personal identity , at least in the way he represents his identity. We confronted, within the framework of our prospect,the led personal identity by the choice of a contractual theses aimed at a critic of a democratic historical society as it stands, with theses by M. Sandel and C. Taylor, especially. They do not only criticise Rawls' contractual theses, but above all, for us, the image it allows us to built of personal identity as liberal. The liberal individual, because he represents himself first and fundamentally free, links himself to rights (and their conditions of exercise)which he gives himself, and is only secondarily interested by the Good.It is precisely this auto-representation of the self which is rejected, because, e.g., it is not anymore the agent's good aimed at that is worthy of respect but the agent himself becaus he chose it. So, society should not consider the effects of his choice. In our An Outline of a Theory of Liberal Identity, we ask ourselves if it can resist these critics and, in fine, of what liberty, as the liberal self thinks it establishes his life, consists.
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Robert Gautier. Esquisse d'une théorie de l'identité libérale. Philosophie. Université Paul Valéry - Montpellier III, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016MON30079⟩. ⟨tel-01743745⟩



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