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Nanocontamination d'organismes aquatiques par des particules inorganiques : transfert trophique et impacts toxiques

Abstract : Due to an increasing and massive use, engineered nanoparticles are raising as potentialemerging contaminants in the environment, including aquatic ecosystems. While trophictransfer appears to constitute a major exposure route for organisms, scientific literature hasdifficulties to respond to the questions raised to explore the range of the interactions existingbetween nanoparticles and living organisms at different scales from the trophic interactionsto the cellular impacts. This problem is partly due to experimental difficulties inherent tothis exposure type. For this work performed in controlled laboratory conditions, sphericalgold nanoparticles (10 nm, coated with PEG-amines, positively charged) were chosen tostudy the trophic transfer and toxic effects on aquatic organisms. Trophic chains concernedseveral trophic levels (up to three) with a variety of species considered : the basis of thetrophic web with natural biofilms or microalgae, intermediate levels with grazing fish orsuspensivorous bivalves, and up to top food chain organisms, with the European eel, a carnivorousfish.With relatively low doses for exposures, this work tends to represent environmentalconditions. Integrative methodological approaches from subcellular to tissue levels(RT-qPCR, RNA-sequencing, histology) were performed in order to assess toxic impacts.The results indicate a high retention capacity of nanoparticles by natural biofilms. Followinga 21-day exposure, gold quantifications reveal a transfer from biofilms to grazing fish, witha gold distribution in all organs. Moreover, this transfer is associated with an inflammatoryresponse according to the histological lesions observed in the liver, spleen and muscle ofexposed fish. A longer food chain, with three trophic levels involving microalgae - bivalves- European eels, is set up to give a better representation of the complexity of trophic interactionsin the aquatic environment. It shows a significant transfer to the predatory fish.Transcriptomic analyses, using the RNA-sequencing approach, for the liver and the brain ofexposed eels by nanoparticles’ enriched food, highlight a joint response for these two organsin the biological processes associated with the immune system and its regulation, includingNOD-like receptors involved in inflammasome.All the experimental results suggest long-term harmful effects that nanoparticles would generatein aquatic ecosystems, emphasizing the ability of these contaminants to be transferredthroughout trophic chains.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, March 21, 2018 - 12:08:09 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, October 14, 2020 - 4:05:54 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Thursday, September 13, 2018 - 7:49:00 AM

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  • HAL Id : tel-01739724, version 1

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Fanny Perrier. Nanocontamination d'organismes aquatiques par des particules inorganiques : transfert trophique et impacts toxiques. Biodiversité et Ecologie. Université de Bordeaux, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017BORD0959⟩. ⟨tel-01739724⟩

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