Influence des facteurs paysagers sur la flore des habitats herbacés sous influence urbaine : approches taxonomiques et fonctionnelles

Abstract : The process of urbanisation leads to a series of transformations and disturbances that may have consequences for wild plant communities. This thesis presents a study of the plant communities of ordinary grasslands distributed among three cities of western France: Angers, Nantes and La Roche-sur-Yon. Using both taxonomical and functional approaches, the aim is to analyse the variation in plant diversity and composition along landscape gradients, in particular those of urbanisation and habitat connectivity. Such grassland habitats appear to be diverse, despite a low number of exotic species. The urban-rural gradient structures such communities, in particular by strongly modifying species composition; and this despite an absence of variation in species richness or of homogenisation. These modifications in community structure are linked to traits for ecological requirements (for habitat, pH, humidity or light) or for adaptation to higher levels of disturbance in towns. These relationships vary according to species’ local or regional abundance, suggesting that other mecanisms accompany the filtering process. Taking into account three functional traits (height, SLA and phenology) measured in situ shows that the filtering process also has consequences at intraspecific level. Taken together, the results show how common species are assembled in response to ecological processes operating in urban environments and open up new perspectives and applications for the integration of grassland plant communities into biodiversity conservation objectives in urban areas.
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Arnaud Cochard. Influence des facteurs paysagers sur la flore des habitats herbacés sous influence urbaine : approches taxonomiques et fonctionnelles. Biodiversité et Ecologie. Agrocampus Ouest, 2017. Français. ⟨tel-01739467⟩

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