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Évolution de l’état nutritionnel et des troubles de la déglutition au cours des accidents vasculaires cérébraux, en milieu hospitalier au Burkina Faso

Abstract : Burkina Faso (BF) is experiencing nutritional and epidemiological transitions. Hospitalizations for cerebrovascular disease or hypertension and diabetes are gradually increasing, reaching in 2016 three times the values of 2012. To reduce burden due to stroke, it is necessary to reduce the effect of dysphagia and undernourrishment related to the disease. Data on these subjects are scarce or absent in sub-Saharan Africa and BF. The objectives of the research were, to determine the prevalence of nutritional disorders and dysphagia at admission for stroke in the BF referral hospital settings, as well as their changes in the first 14 days of follow-up, and secondly to explore in the primary care centers, nurses' knowledge, attitudes and practices about dysphagia and nutritional disorders in hemiplegic patients, potentially stroke victims. The nutritional status and dysphagia of 222 stroke patients consecutively admitted to the university hospital centers of Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso were studied at baseline D0, eighth day D8 and fourteenth day D14. Undernourrishment prevalences were 25.2%, 29.4% and 31.0% respectively, and dysphagia prevalences were 37.4%, 28.4% and 15.8%. All anthropometric criteria decreased between D0 and D14. At D14, the factors associated with undernourrishment were female sex (OR=7.01; 95% CI=1.51-32.56), low weight at D0 (OR=0.69; 95% CI=0.60-0.79), and low tricipal tricipal skin fold at D0 (OR=0.85;95% CI=0.74- 0.99). Undernourrishment was a major health problem as early as D0 in these patients, and female patients and the most malnourished patients at D0 should be particularly monitored and managed. A questionnaire to explore knowledge and practice regarding dysphagia and nutritional disorders was administered to 125 nurses from urban primary care centers working in centers where tertiary level of care receives the most hemiplegic patients in the BF. 57% of nurses had a good knowledge on the brain's role in controlling swallowing and the occurrence of hemiplegia. Regarding screening for dysphagia, 58.4% of nurses gave correct answers on the cough chapter and 56.0% on the voice chapter. 42.3% of nurses made the link between aspiration pneumonitis and swallowing disorders, 36.0% knew an emergency manoeuvre to be applied in the event of an aspiration. Only 1.6% of nurses knew that changes in textures, taste or temperature of beverages could affect swallowing, and 65.6% recognized the impact of postural adaptations. The impact of dysphagia on nutritional status was known by 39.2% of nurses. To screen for dysphagia in practice, only 11.6% of nurses used both an interrogation and a refeeding test. 30.1% of nurses did not provide dietary advices to patients. At the time of the patient's transfer to the higher level of care, 41.7% never gave any information about the presence or not of dysphagia. In multivariate analysis, only good knowledge of the "voice" chapter was associated with the ability to detect dysphagia (OR = 3.5, 95% CI: 1.4-8.1). The criteria of the professional career of nurses did not impact results. Neurology and nutrition education for hemiplegic patients should include specific data on dysphagia, particularly regarding screening modalities and simple advice on texture and postures. For the first time, these studies have clarified the nutritional status and prevalence of dysphagia in post-stroke patients in Burkina Faso. They suggest that patient care pathways should be more secured, through establishment of training programs for health workers, better information for patients, and carers, and also the provision of simple materials and techniques.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01738155
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Jeoffray Diendere. Évolution de l’état nutritionnel et des troubles de la déglutition au cours des accidents vasculaires cérébraux, en milieu hospitalier au Burkina Faso. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Limoges, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LIMO0098⟩. ⟨tel-01738155⟩

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