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Etude et inhibition de l'activation endothéliale au cours de l'angiogenèse

Abstract : Angiogenesis is the biological process of new blood vessel formation from the pre-existing vascular network. Its first step, endothelial activation, is characterized by endothelial cell proliferation, the secretion of pro-angiogenic factors such as Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) and the relocation of nucleolin from the nucleus to the cell surface. In the mature vessels, endothelial cells are quiescent and the endothelium is covered by pericytes. Endothelial activation induces pericyte detachment which promotes the remodeling of the vascular network. The aim of this thesis is to study the mechanisms of endothelial activation during physiological angiogenesis and to evaluate the effects of its inhibition in a context of tumor angiogenesis. In vivo studies in mouse retina and in vitro studies on human endothelial cells showed that VEGF regulates the exocytosis of Weibel-Palade bodies (WPB), cytoplasmic compartments specific for endothelial cells that may contain Ang-2. This work suggests that the exocytosis of WPBs induced by VEGF regulates the secretion of Ang-2 by activated endothelial cells and that secreted Ang-2 regulates the recruitment of pericytes on the vessels. Nucleolin targeting in a pancreatic cancer model inhibited endothelial activation and this inhibition decreased tumor growth and angiogenesis while promoting recruitment of pericytes and normalization of tumor vessels. Vascular normalization induced by the inhibition of endothelial activation via nucleolin targeting may be a promising strategy for the treatment of pathologies associated with dysregulation of angiogenesis, such as cancers or retinopathies.
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Mélissande Cossutta. Etude et inhibition de l'activation endothéliale au cours de l'angiogenèse. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Paris-Est, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PESC0011⟩. ⟨tel-01737760⟩

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