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Caractérisation de structures explorées dans les simulations de dynamique moléculaire.

Abstract : This PhD is part of transdisciplinary works, combining graph theory and computational chemistry.In molecular dynamics simulations, a molecular system can adopt different conformations over time. Along a trajectory, one conformation or more can thus be explored. This depends on the simulation time and energy within the system. To get a good exploration of the molecular conformations, one must generate and analyse several trajectories (this can amount to thousands of trajectories). Our objective is to propose an automatic method that provides rapid and efficient analysis of the conformational dynamics explored over these trajectories. The trajectories of interest here are in cartesian coordinates of the atoms that constitute the molecular system, recorded at regular time intervals (time-steps). Each interval containing a set of positions is called a snapshot. At each snapshot, our developed algorithm uses geometric rules (distances, angles, etc.) to compute bonds (covalent bonds, hydrogen bonds and any other kind of intermolecular criterium) formed between atoms in order to get the mixed graph modelling one given conformation. Within our current definitions, a conformational change is characterized by either a change in the hydrogen bonds or in the covalent bonds. One choice or the other depends on the underlying physics and chemistry of interest. The proposed algorithm provides all conformations explored along one or several trajectories, the period of time for the existence of each one of these conformations, and also provides the graph of transitions that shows all conformational changes that have been observed during the trajectories. A user-friendly interface has been developed, that can de distributed freely.Our proposed algorithm for analysing the trajectories of molecular dynamics simulations has been tested on three kinds of gas phase molecular systems (peptides, ionic clusters). This model can be easily adapted and applied to any other molecular systems as well as to condensed matter systems, with little effort. Although the theoretical complexity of the algorithm is exponential (isomorphism tests), results have shown that the algorithm is rapid.We have also worked on computationally low cost graph methods that can be applied in order to pre-characterize specific conformations/points on a potential energy surface (it describes the energy of a system in terms of positions of the atoms). These points are the minima on the surface, representing the most stable conformations of a molecular system, and the maxima on that surface, representing transition states between two conformers. Our developed methods and algorithms aim at getting these specific points, without the prerequisite knowledge/calculation of the potential energy surface by quantum chemistry methods (or even by classical representations). By avoiding an explicit calculation of the potential energy surface by quantum chemistry methods, one saves computational time and effort. We have proposed an alternative method using ad doc measures based on properties of the graphs (already used in the first part of the PhD), without any knowledge of energy and/or molecular calculations. These measures allow getting the possible conformations with a realistic energy classification, as well as transition states, at very low computational cost. The algorithm has been tested on gas phase peptides.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01737620
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Submitted on : Monday, March 19, 2018 - 3:57:10 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, October 14, 2020 - 4:20:49 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01737620, version 1

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Sana Bougueroua. Caractérisation de structures explorées dans les simulations de dynamique moléculaire.. Algorithme et structure de données [cs.DS]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLV099⟩. ⟨tel-01737620⟩

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