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Réponse des cellules épithéliales pulmonaires à l'exposition au perflurocarbone dans le contexte des applications de la ventilation liquide totale

Abstract : During Total Liquid Ventilation (TLV), lung cells are exposed to perfluorocarbon (PFC) whose physical properties highly differ from aqueous medium (DMEM) standardly used for cell culture and farther air properties. In this thesis, we study the effects of PFC exposure on the response of pulmonary epithelial cell by performing a thorough assessment of their structural, mechanical and functional properties. The response of A549 cells (alveolar), HBE (bronchial), and AM (alveolar macrophages) exposed to PFC is studied by comparison to DMEM. Changes in F-actin structure, focal adhesion size and density and glycocalyx expression are evaluated by fluorescence. Changes in cell mechanics and adhesion parameters are measured by a multiscale Magnetic Twisting Cytometry (MTC) method. Cell mechanics is analyzed by two microrheological models reflecting two possible cytoskeleton features. Cell-matrix adhesion is analyzed by a stochastic multibond de-adhesion model describing the non-reversible component of the cell response by MTC. The key roles of F-actin structure and glycocalyx layer are established by respectively depolymerising F-actin and degrading glycocalyx. Results show that PFC exposure induces F-actin remodelling, cytoskeleton softening and adhesion weakening. They demonstrate that PFC triggers an epithelial cell response which is characterized by decay in intracellular tension, adhesion weakening and glycocalyx redistribution. The origin of this cellular adaptations is physical and most likely related to the increase in interfacial energy, associated to the low surface tension of the non polar perflurorocarbon, The low surface tension of PFC is also responsible for an increase in lung compliance during TLV and has deep impacts during ventilation parallel to the modification of cell response.
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Sofia Andre Dias. Réponse des cellules épithéliales pulmonaires à l'exposition au perflurocarbone dans le contexte des applications de la ventilation liquide totale. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Paris-Est, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PESC0007⟩. ⟨tel-01737616⟩

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