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The role of Chd7 & Chd8 chromatin remodelers in oligodendrogenesis and (re)myelination

Abstract : Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are myelin-forming cells of the central nervous system wrapping axons and allowing the saltatory conduction of action potentials. In Multiple sclerosis (MS), myelin sheath is destroyed and effective remyelination by oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) diminishes with disease progression. Therefore, a better understanding of the mechanisms controlling OPC generation and differentiation is essential to develop efficient remyelinating therapies. Oligodendrogenesis, involving the steps of OPC generation, OPC differentiation and maturation of OLs, is a process controlled by specific transcription factors including Ascl1, Olig2 and Sox10 but the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. As it is known that chromatin remodelers are regulatory factors necessary in the formation of the promoter-enhancer loop prior to transcription, we focused our study on Chd7 (Chromodomain-Helicase-DNA-Binding 7), a member of the CHD protein family. In a first study, we showed that Chd7 is highly enriched in the oligodendroglial lineage cells with a peak of expression during OL differentiation and that Chd7 OPC-conditional deletion impairs OL differentiation during (re)myelination. In a second study, we used unbiased genome wide technics in purified OPCs to study Chd7 regulation of genes involved in OPC differentiation, proliferation and survival. To this aim, we have generated OPC-specific inducible Chd7 knock-out (Chd7-iKO) and analyse the transcriptome (RNA-seq) of purified OPCs from P7 mouse cortices compared to control littermates. We found that Chd7 promote the expression genes involved in OPC differentiation and myelination and inhibits apoptosis, without affecting OPC proliferation. Furthermore, we investigated Chd8, a paralog of Chd7, showing that it is expressed in the oligodendroglial lineage with a peak of expression in differentiating oligodendrocytes, similar to Chd7. Genome wide binding (ChIP-seq) profiling for Chd7 and Chd8 indicate that these two chromatin remodelers bind to common genes related to OPC differentiation, survival and proliferation. Integrating these datasets with other key transcriptional regulators of oligodendrogenesis (Olig2, Ascl1 & Sox10), we have built a model accounting for the time-controlled regulate expression of genes involved in each step of OL differentiation.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01737394
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Submitted on : Monday, March 19, 2018 - 2:28:07 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, February 23, 2021 - 7:30:09 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01737394, version 1

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Corentine Marie. The role of Chd7 & Chd8 chromatin remodelers in oligodendrogenesis and (re)myelination. Neurons and Cognition [q-bio.NC]. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017PA066365⟩. ⟨tel-01737394⟩

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