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Analyse chimique des résidus des contaminants anthropiques dans les chaines alimentaires : influence du régime alimentaire chez les prédateurs

Abstract : In this work, we analyzed the residues of several anthropogenic contaminants in predators of the aquatic food chain and prey of the terrestrial chain. The otter, the great cormorant and the catfish are piscivorous predators at the top of the food chain. Organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and trace elements (lead, cadmium, copper and mercury) were detected in all these predators collected from the basins of the Loire in France. Residue level of PCBs in these predators was the highest followed by DDTs and maximal PCB values reached 1.61, 1.96, and 0.28 mg/kg wet weight for cormorants, otters, and catfish, respectively. The concentration of mercury exceeded the toxic thresholds for more than 40% of the cormorants analyzed. The possible combined effect of these contaminants on the three species has not been studied in this thesis. However, the concentrations of organochlorines and trace elements are generally modest or low. Thus, it seems that these contaminants do not constitute a major threat to the conservation of these species for the short or medium term. Furthermore, in the terrestrial food chain, we found that three anticoagulant rodenticides chlorophacinone, bromadiolone and brodifacoum accumulate in slugs in a stable way over the time, whereas no mortality was observed in slugs. Brodifacoum was detected in more than 90% of the slugs collected in the field, and we found that these slugs represented a high risk of secondary poisoning for three of their predators, European hedgehog, common shrew and European starling. Therefore, it could be confirmed that invertebrates constitute a non-negligible source of rodenticides for their predators.The objective of this thesis is to show the influence of the diet on the contamination of prey, predators and to evaluate the toxicological risks for these species
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Hussein Alomar. Analyse chimique des résidus des contaminants anthropiques dans les chaines alimentaires : influence du régime alimentaire chez les prédateurs. Toxicologie. Université de Lyon, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LYSE1211⟩. ⟨tel-01736250⟩

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