Déterminants immuno-virologiques de l’infection congénitale à cytomégalovirus dans les prélèvements fœtaux périphériques et dans le tissu cérébral

Abstract : CMV congenital infection has a worldwide incidence estimated at about 0.7% of all life births and represents the major cause of neurological handicap of infectious origin. The management of this infection remains highly debated. Several factors contribute to this and among them are the absence of recognized prognostic markers and gaps in the knowledge of its pathogenicity particularly that of the fetal brain. The first objective of this work was to describe and validate immune and virological predictive markers of vertical transmission and of neonatal sequelae. The second objective was to study in situ immune and virological correlates of the severity of fetal brain infection. We first validated a model of materno-fetal transmission based on maternal virological results (IgG avidity and blood CMV DNA). We then showed that the viral reservoir level, estimated by the viral load in the amniotic fluid and the fetal blood, was a predictive marker of neonatal sequelae. Prognosis models combining quantification of the viral reservoir to fetal imaging allow to reach positive and negative predictive values up to 80% and 100% respectively. We showed using immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis that viral multiplication as well as both innate immune responses (NK cells) and adaptive immune responses (CD8+ and plasma cells) were significantly higher in the most severely infected fetal brains. This paradox drove us to quantify PD-1 and its receptor PD-L1, PD-1expression was significantly higher in severely affected fetal brains. Cytometry flow analysis evidenced that PD-1 was expressed in 95% of CD8+ cells but also in at least 70% of NK cells and of B cells. These results demonstrate immune exhaustion of both adaptive and innate responses in fetal infected brains. Finally, viral replication was evidenced in stem cells, neurons and mature astrocytes after separation by flow cytometry of these neuronal cell types. In conclusion, the validation of immune-virological markers obtained within this work has usefully improved the algorithms for the clinical management of in utero CMV infection. Moreover, the demonstration that immune exhaustion and high viral multiplication are responsible of severe fetal brain affection is important to elaborate in utero treatment strategies.
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Yann Sellier. Déterminants immuno-virologiques de l’infection congénitale à cytomégalovirus dans les prélèvements fœtaux périphériques et dans le tissu cérébral. Virologie. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016USPCB053⟩. ⟨tel-01734978⟩

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