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Bases génétiques de la dysplasie fibromusculaire : une approche d’étude d’exome et de génétique épidémiologique

Abstract : Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a group of nonatherosclerotic and noninflammatory vascular diseases leading to stenosis, aneurysm, dissection and/or occlusion of medium-sized arteries, in particular the renal and extracranial cervical arteries. Clinical manifestations of FMD are hypertension, dizziness, pulsatile tinnitus, transient ischemic attack or stroke, according to the involved arterial beds. FMD occurs predominantly (80% of cases) in females under 50 years with a variable prevalence estimation from 0.4% for asymptomatic clinical relevant forms to 4% in potential renal donors. The pathogenesis of FMD is unknown and a genetic origin is suspected given its demonstrated familial aggregation. The aim of my thesis work was to characterize genetic basis of FMD. In the first part of this thesis, we analyzed whole exome sequencing data in 16 related FMD cases from seven families. No gene harbors variants that were shared by all affected members in at least three out seven families. Using combined strategy of whole exome sequencing and gene based association study of 62,767 rare variants (MAF < 5%) generated by Exome‐chip arrays in 249 unrelated FMD cases and 689 controls, we have identified and validated an enrichment of rare and putatively functional variants in four candidates genes (MYLK, OBSCN, DYNC2H1 and RNF213). This results need to be validated in other FMD families and by functional analysis. In the second part, we analyzed 25,606 common variants (MAF ≥ 5%) generated by Exome‐chip array. Top loci were replicated in first replication study (402 cases and 2,537 controls) and in 3 others studies (512 cases and 669 controls). Meta-analysis of all including 1,154 unrelated FMD cases and 3,895 controls allowed identification of association between FMD and rs9349379-A (OR=1.39 [1.39-1.54]; P=7.4×10‐10). rs9349379 is intronic to PHACTR1, a risk locus for coronary artery disease, migraine, and cervical artery dissection. The analyses of geometrical parameters of carotids from 2,458 healthy volunteers indicated higher intima media thickness (P = 1.97×10‐4) and wall to lumen ratio (P = 0.002) in rs9349379‐A carriers, suggesting indices of carotid hypertrophy as previously described in carotids of FMD patients. Immunohistochemistry detected PHACTR1 in endothelium and smooth muscle cells of FMD and normal human carotids. The expression of PHACTR1 by genotypes in primary human fibroblasts showed higher expression in rs9349379‐A carriers (N=86, P=0.003). Phactr1 knockdown in zebrafish resulted in dilated vessels indicating subtle impairment of vascular development. This work confirms the multifactorial and heterogeneous genetic architecture of the FMD and opens new opportunities to evaluate all of genomic variability of FMD patients with massive genetic epidemiology approaches.
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Submitted on : Thursday, March 15, 2018 - 10:02:08 AM
Last modification on : Friday, October 23, 2020 - 5:02:34 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01734816, version 1


Soto Romuald Kiando. Bases génétiques de la dysplasie fibromusculaire : une approche d’étude d’exome et de génétique épidémiologique. Génétique. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016USPCB042⟩. ⟨tel-01734816⟩



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