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Imagerie quantitative de l'assemblage de la NADPH oxydase des phagocytes en cellules vivantes par des approches FRET-FLIM

Abstract : The phagocyte NADPH oxidase (NOX2) is a key enzyme of the immune system generating superoxide anions, which are precursors for other reactive oxygen species. Any dysfunctions of NOX2 are associated with a plethora of diseases and thus detailed knowledge about its regulation is needed. This oxidase is composed of five subunits, the membrane-bound gp91phox and p22phox and the cytosolic p47phox, p67phox, and p40phox. The latter are assumed to be in a ternary complex that translocates together with the small GTPase Rac to the membranous subunits during activation.Our aim was to discover and to characterize specific interactions of the cytosolic subunits of NOX2 in live cells using a Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) based approach: Since FRET depends on the distance between two fluorophores, it can be used to reveal protein-protein interactions non-invasively by studying fluorescent protein tagged subunits. To have a rapid method on hand to reveal specific interactions, a flow cytometer based FRET approach was developed. For more detailed studies, FRET was measured by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM), because it allows a direct determination of the apparent and molecular FRET efficiency, which contains both qualitative and quantitative information about the interaction and the structure of the interacting proteins. Furthermore, the FRET-FLIM approach enables an estimation of the fraction of bound donor. This information itself is important for a better understanding of the organisation and regulation of the NOX2, but it is also necessary for the calculation of the dissociation constant Kd from the FRET-FLIM data. To confirm the findings obtained by FRET-FLIM fluorescence cross correlation spectroscopy (FCCS) experiments were performed. This completely independent method is not based on distances like FRET but on the observation of the co diffusion of the fluorescently labelled samples when they move across a small observation volume inside the cells.The FRET-FLIM approach allowed us in a first step to discover heterodimeric interactions between all cytosolic subunits in live cells. Due to the good precision of the results, we were able to extract structural information about the interactions and to compare them with available structural data obtained from in vitro studies. The information from FRET-FLIM was coherent with in vitro data. We then aligned the available structures leading to the first 3D model of the cytosolic complex of the NADPH oxidase in the resting state in live cells.Additionally, the bound fraction for all heterodimeric interactions derived by FRET-FLIM is around 20 %, which is in contrast to the general belief that all cytosolic subunits are bound in complex. The first FCCS results support our findings. Therefore, we believe that the complexation of the cytosolic subunits could be involved in the regulation of the NADPH oxidase and should be investigated further. The estimated Kd derived from the FRET-FLIM approach is in the low micomolar range, which is an order of a magnitude higher than the nanomolar range of in vitro studies.In conclusion, we showed that our quantitative FRET-FLIM approach is not only able to distinguish between specific and unspecific protein-protein interactions, but gives also information about the structural organisation of the interacting proteins. The high precision of the FRET-FLIM data allow the determination of the bound fraction and an estimation of the Kd in live cells. FCCS is a complementary method, which can verify these quantitative findings. However, it cannot replace FRET-FLIM completely as it does not give any structural information.With respect to the biological outcome of this project, we can propose for the first time a 3D-model of the cytosolic complex of the NADPH oxidase covering the in vitro as well as the live cell situation. Additionally, the small bound fraction found here may raise new ideas on the regulation of this vital enzyme.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01734731
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  • HAL Id : tel-01734731, version 1

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Citation

Cornelia Ziegler. Imagerie quantitative de l'assemblage de la NADPH oxydase des phagocytes en cellules vivantes par des approches FRET-FLIM. Biophysique. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016SACLS048⟩. ⟨tel-01734731⟩

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