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Le rapport mimétique dans l’œuvre de Roberto Bolaño

Abstract : In this work we analyze the link between the subject and mimetic desire in the works of Chilean writer Roberto Bolaño (1953-2003). The concept of mimetic is closely related to the notion of desire. In fact, for French thinker René Girard, the individual doesn’t desire by himself, but he imitates a “model”. Desire is thus determined by the mediator. This type of desire operates in an unconscious way, because the subject is confident about the autonomy of his choice. French psychanalyst Jacques Lacan enhances this theory in a typically Hegelian way: the desire of recognition. For Lacan, the individual projects himself in a fixed image (called by Lacan the Imaginary); this fixation assails him in the form of a drive. Here mimetic desire is doubled: it doesn’t only imitate models to try to match with this fixed image, but also aims its effort to be recognized by others. Our work uses this methodological approach to study the works of Roberto Bolaño. Bolaño, one of the most important Hispanic American writers of the last years, puts the issue of the autonomy of the subject in the heart of his writings. This topic is mainly noticeable at the two main themes of his work: art and Evil. As a matter of fact, Bolaño’s writings always highlight the struggle of the artist who wants his autonomy recognized by the Other (for this reason, Bolaño’s artists are often members of the avant-garde, thus opposed to tradition). Correspondingly, violence can be caused in one hand by mimetic desire (rivalries provoked by an erroneous interpretation of desire’s nature: the Other is saw more as an obstacle for desire’s satisfaction than its mediator) or, on the other hand, by acts that meet the obsession of a lack: one that generally consist in a drive (originated in the Imaginary) that can’t be satisfied.
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Pablo Virguetti Villarroel. Le rapport mimétique dans l’œuvre de Roberto Bolaño. Littératures. Université Michel de Montaigne - Bordeaux III, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017BOR30035⟩. ⟨tel-01733376⟩

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