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La question de la moralité dans l'éthique néo-aristotélicienne depuis G.E.M. Anscombe

Abstract : Does neo-Aristotelian ethics, which was developed according to the programme by G.E.M. Anscombe in 1958, exclude the notion of morality? Anscombe challenged the relevance of the concept of ‘moral duty’. Does this imply that, to follow her programme, one must give up any distinction between ‘moral’ and ‘non-moral’? The defence of moral absolutism motivated Anscombe's ‘intention’ analyses. Critics of legalism, consequentialism or the subjectivism that was conducted in the wake of ‘Modern Moral Philosophy’ by the main representatives of neo-Aristotelian ethics—Philippa Foot, Alasdair MacIntyre, Rosalind Hursthouse and Martha C. Nussbaum—have responded to the same type of concern. The neo-Aristotelians, despite their disagreement on many points, seek to set the idea of a homogeneous practical rationality against modern conceptions of moral rationality; however, it is to show that rationality is intrinsically linked to virtue. In the same spirit, they set a non-reductionist naturalism against the anti-naturalist British ethics of the 20th century. Under these different aspects, their reflection benefits from a return to the original inspiration of Anscombe’s ‘psychology’ method. This return is also what allows some of them to lay the foundations for an ethical theory based on notions of virtue and happiness regardless of whether it claims to belong to ‘virtue ethics’ or not. Through its definition of ‘human action’, this ethical theory—which proposes to reconnect with certain characteristics of ancient ethics—implies, however, a demanding and original definition of morality.
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Pierre Goldstein. La question de la moralité dans l'éthique néo-aristotélicienne depuis G.E.M. Anscombe. Philosophie. Université Côte d'Azur, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017AZUR2038⟩. ⟨tel-01731489⟩



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