Induction de la voie IFN/STAT1 dans le cancer du sein sous chimiothérapie : étude mécanistique

Abstract : Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women. Despite chemotherapy, tumor response is often incomplete, and relapse is frequently observed. The aim of this work was to analyze the molecular mechanisms triggered in breast cancer cells in response to chemotherapy. These events were modeled using breast cancer patient-derived xenografts (PDXs), i.e. samples of human tumors engrafted into immunodeficient mice. Transcriptomic analysis highlighted precocious induction of the interferon (IFN)/STAT1 pathway in response to chemotherapy only in tumors responding to treatment, suggesting that this molecular signature could be used as a biomarker of the initial response. The activation of this pathway persisted in residual tumor cells, suggesting that it could also play a role in cancer recurrence observed in all PDX models that we investigated. Functional deciphering of the IFN/STAT1 pathway was performed in vitro by stimulating breast cancer cell lines with mafosfamide, the active principle of a classical chemotherapy inducing DNA damage. In some cell lines, e.g. MCF-7 cells, this treatment triggered the upregulation of type I IFN expression leading to cell-autonomous activation of the IFN/STAT1 signaling pathway. A mechanistic study revealed the involvement of the DNA sensor STING (stimulator of IFN genes) upstream of the IFN production, mimicking what happens in immune cells facing pathogen infection. Individual silencing of various actors of the STING/IFN/STAT1 pathway potentiated genotoxic treatment efficacy, indicating that this cascade may be involved in tumor resistance to treatment. In summary, our study suggests that cell-intrinsic activation of STING/IFN/STAT1 pathway in response to chemotherapy could play a dual role: first, it may be used as a predictive biomarker of initial response; second, it may act as a resistance mechanism to treatment. This work opens new prognostic and therapeutic perspectives for the clinical management of breast cancer.
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Julie Gaston. Induction de la voie IFN/STAT1 dans le cancer du sein sous chimiothérapie : étude mécanistique. Biochimie, Biologie Moléculaire. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016USPCB041⟩. ⟨tel-01731357⟩

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