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Approche macromoléculaire pour la décorporation d’actinides

Abstract : Since the development of the nuclear industry, the risks of human contamination with actinides are not to be neglected and should be taken in account. Development of the nuclear weapon programs, nuclear plant accidents from civil use (Chernobyl, Fukushima) or use of depleted uranium ammunitions in war zones (Gulf War, Kosovo) have made countermeasures to decorporate actinides in humans an important strategic issue. Actinides are radiotoxic and chemotoxic elements (the relative dangerousness of which depends on their isotopy) which, if absorbed, can cause damages to the tissues and organs they target (bone, liver cancers or necrosis, etc.). To date the efficiency of the molecular decorporation agent of reference, DTPA (diethyleneiminetriamine pentaacetic acid), is limited by its weak distribution rate to the target organs (bone, liver, kidneys). This project explores the possibility to enhance the actinide body excretion using a targeting strategy of the decorporation agent towards the target organs. To initiate this question, we have chosen to focus on the complexing capacities of uranyl (U (VI)), plutonium and thorium (Pu (IV) and Th (IV)) by two polyethyleneimines (PEI) functionalized with carboxylate and phosphonate groups. The measurement of the uptake curves associated with the formation of the actinide polymer complexes combined with EXAFS and IR spectroscopic studies in a pseudo-biological medium made it possible to define the maximum loading capacities of each polymer and to characterize the complexation sites. These data allow to better understand the mechanisms of affinity of the functionalized polyethyleneimines for the above actinides and thus to progress in the design of new decorporation agents.
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Florian Lahrouch. Approche macromoléculaire pour la décorporation d’actinides. Autre. Université Côte d'Azur, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017AZUR4133⟩. ⟨tel-01731301⟩

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