Conséquences de la surexpression des formes solubles de l’APP dans les mécanismes de mémoire : application à la maladie d'Alzheimer

Romain Fol 1
1 LMN - Laboratoire des Maladies Neurodégénératives - UMR 9199
MIRCEN - Service MIRCEN : DRF/JACOB, UP11 - Université Paris-Sud - Paris 11, CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique : UMR 9199
Abstract : One of the main characteristic of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is the intracerebral accumulation of the neurotoxic Amyloid β peptide (Aβ) either as oligomeric or aggregated forms known as the amyloid plaques. This peptide is produced via the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) processing following the amyloidogenic pathway, pathological pathway overactivated in AD. Most of the research performed during the last 25 years focused on pathogenic consequences of this dysregulation, deprioritizing the understanding of the APP physiological functions. Nonetheless, numerous studies show that these physiological functions might be mediated via APP soluble forms (APPs). In the physiological APP processing pathway, the non-amyloidogenic pathway, APP is cleaved by the α secretase, releasing the APPsα which display neuroprotective and synaptotrophic properties, essential for brain normal functions. In the context of AD, the amyloidogenic pathway overactivation leads to APPsβ overproduction at the expense of APPsα. Therefore, AD harmful consequences could be due to the decrease of APPsα concentration associated with an increase of APPsβ. My thesis project aimed to characterize mnemonic and functional properties following the overexpression of these two soluble forms of APP and their therapeutic potential in AD. We firstly overexpressed APPsα in hippocampal neurons of APP/PS1ΔE9 mice, animal model of AD, which display cognitive and synaptic deficits. The continual expression of APPsα, mediated via AAV viruses, enabled restoration of spatial memory, long-term potentiation and dendritic spines density in the hippocampus. This phenotypic rescue was accompanied with the decrease of both Aβ levels and amyloid plaques. This might be due to the activation of microglia, cell type able to internalize and degrade Aβ. In a second hand, I studied the involvement of APPsβ in AD, which remains poorly known. Its overexpression in APP/PS1ΔE9 did not induce neither LTP nor spatial memory restoration. However, APPsβ injection lead to the decrease of Aβ levels without reducing amyloid plaques. This default might be due to the lack of microglial activation. In conclusion, my thesis work show that, unlike APPsβ, APPsα overexpression might overcome the AD inevitable evolution by reducing synaptic and memory alterations, typical of AD. These results reinforce a new way of treatment to cope with AD progression. The use of APPsα as therapeutic agent might be an important tool for future AD therapies.
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Romain Fol. Conséquences de la surexpression des formes solubles de l’APP dans les mécanismes de mémoire : application à la maladie d'Alzheimer. Neurosciences. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016USPCB047⟩. ⟨tel-01731051⟩

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