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Se soucier des morts de l'Antiquité aux premiers siècles du Moyen Age : la parole de saint Augustin à l'épreuve des enjeux socio-anthropologiques des funérailles et du tombeau

Abstract : What is a graveyard ? The question seems rather trivial, however for several years historians have debated numerous time on the subject and seek to determine whether the advent of Christianity has profoundly changed the relationship of the living with the dead.in the first part the purpose is to analyze the word of St. Augustine to the extent that it is considered as a foundation of the Christian doctrine in terms of funeral practices. In this perspective, Augustine's treatise devoted specifically to this question, the De cura gerenda pro mortuis, is re-examined in the light of the ontological-theological system that St. Augustine built throughout his life. Far from being a simple guide to good practices for Christians, the De Cura appears as a development of this system. Augustine examines the question of the place of the body in the relationship between the living and the dead. The very construction of the De cura designates the body as the object that Augustine places at the heart of his reflection.Borrowing the track designated by Augustine, the second part of this thesis is about understanding the role of the body in funerary ritual as it is grasped in the written and archaeological sources of Latin antiquity and the first centuries of the Middle Ages. A fresh examination of these sources makes it possible to restore a series of funeral rites that compose a real cycle through which the death of others is shaped so that everyone can recognize that it has taken place. With the help of philosophy, in particular phenomenology, it becomes possible to note that it is not only a question of recording the death of others in time, but that it is also about inscribing it in space, that is to say in a place, which is precisely what is intended by the act of burying the dead in a tomb.Finding a place for the dead does not mean moving them away from the community of the living, but on the contrary assigning them a place so that the living can establish a relationship with them. Indeed, it is precisely the modalities of this relationship, which pass through the mediation of the tomb and therefore through it through the mediation of the body, which do not fit in with the philosophy of St. Augustine.Ultimately, the meeting of burials with the buildings embodying the Christian community, confirms the failure of the Augustinian word before the concern of the members of this community to bring the dead, body and soul, into the City of God.
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  • HAL Id : tel-01729584, version 1

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Vincent Hincker. Se soucier des morts de l'Antiquité aux premiers siècles du Moyen Age : la parole de saint Augustin à l'épreuve des enjeux socio-anthropologiques des funérailles et du tombeau. Histoire. Normandie Université, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017NORMC039⟩. ⟨tel-01729584⟩

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