Rôle de la vapeur d'eau dans le cycle hydrologique en Arctique

Abstract : Atmospheric water vapour plays a key role in the Arctic radiation budget, hydrological cycle and hence climate, but its measurement with high accuracy remains an important challenge. Arctic water vapor is characterized by a spatial and temporal variability which is not completely understood yet. Its mass integrated in the atmospheric column (TCWV) is studied in this thesis. TCWV seasonal cycle at 18 polar stations is examined following the effect of latitude, longitude in addition to the continental effect. The measurements used in this thesis were validated at three polar stations, the satellites measurements of TCWV in the NIR/VIS/IR bands by MODIS/ SCIAMACHY/ AIRS sensors are compared to those obtained from ground based GPS signals delay. Their uncertainties and limitations are evaluated in season and month scales especially their sensitivities to the clouds presence. In NIR and VIS, the measurements undergo increased sensitivity to the presence of clouds at high latitudes in summer. In addition, albedo estimation is still a challenge to their TCWV inversion models, especially where canopies are snow-covered. Following the validation results, the distribution and seasonal trends of the TCWV over the entire Arctic was assessed via MODIS. Trends and anomalies are discussed mainly in response to changes in the Arctic vegetation, snow cover, and sea ice during 2001-2015. Increased trends in TCWV may be related to local increase of vegetated areas coincidently to snow cover decrease during transient seasons. Increased trends in TCWV were observed by MODIS, forced by local summer warming from many warm waves. A dramatic decline in sea ice near the Siberian and Beaufort coasts led to an observed local increase in TCWV in early fall. A warm-up phase in the Svalbard archipelago, persisting in all seasons except summer, also resulted in additional quantities of TCWV. The detection and justification of trends is a task still far from being accomplished. Arctic TCWV measurements are in question, TCWV measurements over green areas in winter, or through cloudy skies in summer are the major challenges.
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Dunya Alraddawi. Rôle de la vapeur d'eau dans le cycle hydrologique en Arctique. Climatologie. Université Paris-Saclay, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLV094⟩. ⟨tel-01729340⟩

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