Conception d'un imageur ultrasonore dans l'air pour la mesure des ondes basses-fréquences en surface du corps humain

Abstract : The aim of the work presented in this dissertation is to develop an airborne ultrasonic system for the contactless measurement of vibrations on the human body surface. The vibration study of the skin surface opens several application fields. The visualization of the surface wave velocity on the skin from the propagation movie allows to characterize the superficial layer elasticity as well as its heterogeneities. From this analysis, objects hidden on or under the skin can be detected for a security purpose. A second application is the observation of the surface vibrations generated by the heartbeat, respiration and pulse wave.The implementation of a first single-channel device allowed the local measurement of vibrations about ten microns order. From this initial work, we developed a 2D airborne ultrasonic imager with high frame rate. It is composed by a 256 microphones square array and by 12 piezoelectric transducers. The main innovation of our approach is the specular surface imaging. Indeed, the skin roughness is negligible compared to the working wavelength, of the centimeter order to limit the air attenuation. To resolve this issue, the imaging process is carried out with an emission/reception beamforming using synthetic aperture and achieved by a sequential emission of spherical waves.After the system characterization, we imaged the surface wave propagation on a phantom mimicking the human body and the interference between this wave and a foreign object. A second version of the 2D imager, composed by 36 emitters, was applied to measure the deformation of the thorax during the heartbeat as well as the pulse wave propagation in the carotid artery.
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Nathan Jeger-Madiot. Conception d'un imageur ultrasonore dans l'air pour la mesure des ondes basses-fréquences en surface du corps humain. Acoustique [physics.class-ph]. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PA066330⟩. ⟨tel-01727360⟩

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