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Regulation of DNA methylation by DNA glycosylases MBD4 and TDG

Abstract : In mammals, methylation is an epigenetic mark targeting cytosine mainly in a CpG context, producing 5mC. 5mC is highly sensitive to a spontaneous or enzymatic deamination leading to G/Tmismatch. 5mC can also be oxidized to 5- 5hmC, 5fC and 5caC. These modifications of 5mC participate in the active demethylation processes. In mammals, the thymine in G/T mismatch is cleaved by TDG and MBD4 glycosylases. TDG is able also to excise the 5fC and 5caC.This thesis was to clarify the function of TDG and MBD4 in the dynamics of 5mC. We showed that MBD4 is associated with PMS2, MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 proteins, four proteins involved in DNA mismatch repair (MMR). The in vitro enzymatic tests show that MBD4/MMR complex has a bifunctional glycosylase/lyase activity specific for G/T and is regulated by methylation.For TDG, we targeted this enzyme in MEF cells and characterized the distribution of modified cytosines. The results show that DNA methylation/oxidation patterns are regulated by TDG and occur mainly at CA repeats and at the mouse-lineage specific retro-elements.
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Abdulkhaleg Ibrahim. Regulation of DNA methylation by DNA glycosylases MBD4 and TDG. Genomics [q-bio.GN]. Université de Strasbourg, 2015. English. ⟨NNT : 2015STRAJ019⟩. ⟨tel-01726946⟩

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