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Architecture et dynamique des migrations d'hydrocarbures dans une couverture sédimentaire à hydrates de gaz : implications sur le système pétrolier (bassin du Bas Congo)

Abstract : Evidence of fluid flow features and their mechanisms of migration through the sedimentary pile are a known phenomenon on continental margins. It has been widely studied over the past twenty years, notably due to the improved resolution of seismic data and the abundance of data in these areas due to oil and gas exploration.The Lower Congo basin, offshore West Africa, is a prolific petroleum province that has been extensively studied, and has been in operation for over 30 years. The area of interest is located above a producing oil field (the Moho license), in which hydrocarbons are trapped in turbidite channels. The work is primarily based on the analysis of geophysical data including 3D and 2D-THR seismic, multibeam bathymetry and corresponding backscatter, as well as background data (samples taken from ROV photos, geochemical analyses).The analysis of this important seismic dataset revealed abundant evidence of fluid migration in the Mio-Pliocene sedimentary pile. They mainly correspond to indications of vertically focused migration, including current fluid expulsion structures on the seafloor, and buried structures, interpreted as fossile and indicating former activity of the fluid expulsion system. The studied fluid migration features mainly consist of pockmarks (depressions) and carbonate cementations. These two types of indicators can build vertical stacks, over several hundred meters, highlighting the durability of the fluid escapes and suggesting the development of real pipes.A new type of pockmarks has been discovered, the spider structures, which are located above a turbiditic reservoir, and which result from a focused migration of thermogenic hydrocarbons. They are related to gas hydrates, in the context of a sloping BSR (Bottom Simulating Reflector), due to the presence of the hydrate wedge. A dynamic model of their functioning is proposed, showing that these structures develop upslope, due to the gas migration under the sloping BSR. A study of the BSR, in the particular context of the hydrates wedge, allows to propose a model of gas escapes, linked to the dissociation of the hydrates, during a sea level fall. This model presents a dissociation of gas hydrates of regional scale (associated with biogenic gas), localized at the gas hydrate wedge zone of the last lowstand. Finally, the network of fluid escape structures of the Mio-Pliocene interval was investigated in order to understand its architecture and the mechanisms of fluid migration in the study area. Hydrocarbons appear to migrate mainly along certain portions of faults and vertically crosscutting the sedimentary pile through pipes or chimneys. The base of the Pliocene, associated with a sea level fall, marks the formation of the first paleo-spiders, as well as a level containing numerous evidence of gas. A model of this network of fluid migrations is proposed, integrating the indicators of hydrocarbon migrations through the sedimentary pile, and the major event of the Pliocene base. This study seems to indicate that a the sea level fall constitute a trigger for the fluids migrations, in the basin.This work thus marks the starting point of a larger-scale investigation which consists in, on the one hand, searching for similar structures (spiders and bands of pockmarks) in other basins ; and, on the other hand, by comparing fluid flow events with the eustatic curve.
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Submitted on : Thursday, March 8, 2018 - 3:18:08 PM
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Viviane Casenave. Architecture et dynamique des migrations d'hydrocarbures dans une couverture sédimentaire à hydrates de gaz : implications sur le système pétrolier (bassin du Bas Congo). Sciences de la Terre. Université Montpellier, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017MONTT143⟩. ⟨tel-01726764⟩

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