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SPATIALISATION DU POTENTIEL DE RECHARGE DIFFUSE D’UN AQUIFÈRE LIBRE SOUS CLIMAT SEMI-ARIDE PAR TECHNIQUES GÉOSPATIALES ET HYDROCHIMIQUES : CAS DE L’AQUIFÈRE DU HAOUZ (MARRAKECH, MAROC)

Abstract : Morocco is located in the extreme northwest of Africa. Most of its territory has an arid and semi-arid climate. Rainfall is very low, usually less than 300 mm/year, with increasing periods of drought in recent decades. The annual levels of rainfall cannot meet the increasing demands from urban centres, agriculture, industry and tourism, particularly in the Haouz Plain (6,200 km² in area) in the centre of Morocco. Rigorous controls are required for the sustainable management of the scarce water resources in this region. The groundwater recharge rate is a fundamental concept in the quantification of water resources and their sustainable management, and many decision-sup-port tools are based on this parameter. The aim of this study was to design an empirical model to estimate the groundwater recharge rate based on a multi-criteria analysis. The model combines both the major and minor factors that determine the potential infiltration. The method is based on the use of a geographical information system, supported by remote sensing, to generate thematic data. These data relate to the spatial variations in the various parameters determining the rate of recharge and were integrated and analysed to deduce the spatial distribution of the recharge. This approach allowed the groundwater recharge rate in the Haouz Plain to be estimated as ranging from 3.5 to 19 %. The aquifer recharge rate in the piedmont region that links the High Atlas and the Central Haouz Plain was estimated using the chloride mass-balance hydrochemical method, which is based on the relationship between the chloride concentrations in groundwater and rainwater. The addition of a geographical information system made it possible to estimate the recharge rate over the whole 400 km² of the study area. The results are presented in the form of a map showing the spatialized recharge rate, which ranges from 13 to 100 mm/year and the recharge percentage of the total rain-fall varies from 3 to 25 % for the hydrological year 2011–2012. This approach will enable the validation of empirical models covering areas >6,200 km², such as the Haouz nappe. Based on the previous hydrological year, the method confirmed a margin of error of less than 15.5 %.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01725794
Contributor : Ouassil Ait El Mekki <>
Submitted on : Wednesday, March 7, 2018 - 5:41:45 PM
Last modification on : Friday, August 9, 2019 - 3:18:07 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Friday, June 8, 2018 - 2:35:43 PM

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Ouassil Ait El Mekki. SPATIALISATION DU POTENTIEL DE RECHARGE DIFFUSE D’UN AQUIFÈRE LIBRE SOUS CLIMAT SEMI-ARIDE PAR TECHNIQUES GÉOSPATIALES ET HYDROCHIMIQUES : CAS DE L’AQUIFÈRE DU HAOUZ (MARRAKECH, MAROC). Hydrologie. Université Cadi Ayyad Faculté Des Sciences Semlalia Marrakech (Maroc), 2017. Français. ⟨tel-01725794⟩

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