Caractérisation physique et chimique des substances à activité thérapeutique : application aux études de profil de stabilité et de préformulation

Abstract : The development of a drug for a given therapeutic target requires several steps, which can be summarized by drug screening, a preclinical phase and a number of clinical phases. These steps allow the selection of an active substance and a verification of its therapeutic efficacy and toxicological safety. The latter two criteria define the quality of the drug, which once demonstrated, must be guaranteed throughout its shelf life. Quality is assessed through stability studies that are carried out with the raw material of the active substance (preformulation phase) and with the final product. The intrinsic stability of the active substance depends on its chemical and physical properties and their characterization is the core of the stability studies, which in addition consists of sensitivity studies of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) for environmental factors that can modify the intrinsic properties of the substance. The approach presented in this work is based on the one hand on the assessment of the chemical stability, i.e. the reactivity of APIs through chemical purity studies and forced degradation in solution, and on the other hand on the assessment of the physical stability. For the latter, crystalline polymorphism is of great importance, as is the ability of the API to form hydrates or solvates. The study of crystalline polymorphism is based on the construction of pressure-temperature phase diagrams in accordance with thermodynamic requirements leading to the stability condition domains of the different crystalline forms. The stability behavior of five APIs used or meant for oral applications has been studied as part of this work. The chemical analysis of tienoxolol, an antihypertensive drug, has demonstrated its sensitivity for hydrolysis and oxidation. Seven degradation products were identified and patterns of fragmentation have been established. Pressure-temperature phase diagrams have been constructed for bicalutamide and finasteride, drugs against prostate cancer, using a topological approach based on data available in the literature. The study demonstrates that the thermodynamic relationship (enantiotropy or monotropy) between crystalline forms under ordinary conditions can change depending on the pressure. This is important for drug development as it demonstrates how stability information can be obtained by standard laboratory measurements accessible to industrial research laboratories without the necessity to carry out experiments under pressure. The topological approach for the construction of phase diagrams has subsequently been validated by measuring transition temperatures as a function of pressure. Experiments have been carried out with benzocaine, a local anesthetic, and with cysteamine hydrochloride, a drug used against cystinosis. Two crystalline forms were observed in the case of benzocaine. They exhibit an enantiotropic relationship that becomes monotropic at high pressure. For cysteamine hydrochloride, a new crystalline form (form III) was discovered. The thermodynamic relationship between the new form III and the known form I is enantiotropic for the entire temperature and pressure range. Cysteamine hydrochloride’s sensitivity to water has been studied, as it is hygroscopic. It has been demonstrated that it becomes deliquescent in the presence of water and no trace of a hydrate has been found. Finally, a study combining thermal and chromatographic methods showed that, under the effect of temperature, cysteamine hydrochloride turns into cystamine in the solid as well as in the liquid state, The latter is known to be an important impurity of cysteamine hydrochloride. In conclusion, the approach developed in this work allowed to characterize the stability properties of a number of APIs and to determine the factors that may change these properties and influence the intrinsic stability (...)
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Inès Gana. Caractérisation physique et chimique des substances à activité thérapeutique : application aux études de profil de stabilité et de préformulation. Chimie analytique. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité; Université de Monastir (Tunisie), 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015USPCB164⟩. ⟨tel-01724633⟩

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