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Représentation des tourbières des hautes latitudes nord dans un modèle de surface : développement d’un schéma hydrologique et estimations des émissions de méthane

Abstract : Peatlands are widely present in northern latitudes and especiallyin permafrost regions. They contain a high carbon stock and are one ofthe greatest natural sources of methane. Their representation in a climate model is crucial to improve the one of the carbon cycle. Moreover, the contribution of methanepeatland emissions remains uncertain.Methane emissions from peatlands strongly depend on the climate and are influenced primarily by temperature and soil moisture. Meanwhile, climate change is particularlysevere at these latitudes and leads to thawing permafrost with increasing the active layer depth. This large carbon reservoir may be partially mobilized and emitted asCO2 or CH4, depending on hydrological conditions at the surface.The aim of this PhD thesis is to represent northern peatlands in the ORCHIDEE land surface model. This development is carried out in the version of the model that incorporatesprocesses in high latitudes such as the soil freezing. Peatlands are represented by a specific hydrological scheme which improves the exchange of energy and water. The difficulty isbased on the representation of local peatlands processes across a global climate model. Some biological properties were also considered to represent bettervegetation of these environments. To do so, peatlands are integrated as a new type ofvegetation and represented by a fraction of a grid, based on observations. Thehydrological behaviour and the impact of this integration are estimated at the boreal scale as well asregionally. This development then allows estimate changes in the hydrology of peatlands due to global warming. Studying the changes in hydrology of peatlands by the end of th 21st century will improve the prediction of future changes in their CH4 emissions.This development work was then applied to determine the evolution of methane emissions. Peatlands are one of the largest natural sources of methane and control more than 70% interannual variability of atmospheric concentration of CH4. Methane emissions result from various physical and biological processes such as methanogenesis and the methanotrophy. To represent these processes, a flux density model, integratedin ORCHIDEE, was adapted for peatlands to estimate their methane emissions. The evolution of these emissions is studied between the early 20th and late 21st centuries under different climate scenarios.
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Chloé Largeron. Représentation des tourbières des hautes latitudes nord dans un modèle de surface : développement d’un schéma hydrologique et estimations des émissions de méthane. Sciences de la Terre. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016GREAU045⟩. ⟨tel-01724557⟩

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