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Formation et maintien des petites entreprises par leur intégration collective a des proximités agies : le cas des petites entreprises de proximité (PEP) malgaches

Abstract : Our research theme is based on the observation that individual companies with fewer than fiveemployees constitute almost all the enterprises created in Madagascar and that they are unstable and ephemeral. We called them "small proximity businesses" or PEP in french, and called "imperfections" their instability over time, from the point of view of their activities, their institutional status and in terms of growth.We observed that their multiplication reflected an entrepreneur's enthusiasm for creating them, which reflected their skill in adapting to their environment.In a country where households were confronted to an endemic problem of joblessness and lack ofincomes, the phenomenon of PEP through the following issue is a topical and a major concern:- If we assume that "small proximity businesses" are adapted to their environment, why are they unfit to last, grow and prosper in their status and activities?- And why do entrepreneurs continue to create them in spite of "their imperfections" thus described? To answer this question, we have proposed the following explanation on the imperfections of PEP:1) They show that the unstable, variable and complex proximity is both a shortcut and acounterexample of environment 2) They stem from structural functionalities and organizational mechanisms implemented to balancethe truncated adaptation of PEP to the environment; 3) They are the factors of the dynamics of integration transforming the agitated proximities into foci of collective survival.We retained two theoretical postulates for our research: the existence of ecosystems for the survival of PEP, and a theoretical referent made of scientific writings and knowledge referring to the logicalconstruction of its survival process. We conducted the work in three stages:_In a first step, the study of the differences between the social construction of the reality of the PEP and the theoretical referent of its survival process allowed but partly to understand the phenomenon of its adaptation and to explain its imperfections (Part 1: The theoretical positioning of our proposal)._Then we observed the called deviations through the empirical processes of PEPs in action, and concluded that they constituted as well symptoms of singularity of organizations and phenomena in a new way of surviving (Part 2: Empirical corroboration of our proposal)We have thus advanced the theoretical hypothesis on the individual maintenance of PEP by itscollective survival with its stakeholders: PEPs are formed through opportunities arising from the imperfections of the environments they exploit in the form of residual sub-markets. They are maintained by integrating agitated proximities that they transform into niches in a perspective of collective survival with their stakeholders. Their mode of adaptation forces them to remain small, ephemeral and variable in their activities._ Finally, we studied the lessons of experiences drawn from our work and the avenues of reflectionthey opened up to us. (Part 3: The theoretical contributions of our study on PEP) We focused on new trends in organizational forms adapted to an environment perceived through itstransformation, and on those of an entrepreneurship running through networks of contacts, marginality and scarcity of resourcesWe concluded our work on PEP on the importance of understanding survivability in terms of ecosystems
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José Raserijaona. Formation et maintien des petites entreprises par leur intégration collective a des proximités agies : le cas des petites entreprises de proximité (PEP) malgaches. Gestion et management. Conservatoire national des arts et metiers - CNAM, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017CNAM1150⟩. ⟨tel-01724274⟩