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La microalgue Odontella aurita prévient l'insulino-résistance et l'inflammation hépatiques induites par un régime hyper-lipidique : mise en évidence des mécanismes insulino-sensibilisateurs des acides gras polyinsaturés omega-3 au niveau neuronal.

Abstract : The metabolic syndrome is characterized by dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, abdominal obesity and hypertension, which are related to an elevated risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have extensive biological effects and modulate the risk factors for metabolic syndrome via multiple mechanisms. However their impact on insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are still unknown.In the current study, we report that Odontella aurita, a microalga rich in the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), prevents High saturated fat diet induced insulin resistance and inflammation in the liver of Wistar rats. High fat diet (HFD), given for 8 weeks, increased plasma insulin levels associated with the down-regulation of insulin receptor (IR) and the impairment of insulin-dependent IR phosphorylation. Furthermore, HFD increased toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expressions. Indeed, we have recently reported that TLR4 is implicated in resistin-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in the hypothalamus (Benomar et al, 2013). We also show that TLR4 up-regulation is concomitant with the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38). Importantly, Odontella aurita enriched HFD (HFOA, 12%) normalized body weight and plasma insulin levels, and restores IR expression at both protein and mRNA levels. In addition, HFAO improves insulin responsiveness as estimated by in vitro phosphorylation of hepatic plasma membrane IR. Furthermore, HFOA decreased TLR4 expression and JNK /p38 phosphorylation. In conclusion, we demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, that omega-3 fatty acids brought by Ondontella aurita overcomes HFD-induced insulin resistance through the inhibition of TLR4/JNK/p38 MAP kinase signaling pathways.To further explore the molecular process underlying the activation of TLR4 by fatty acids, we aim to decipher the mechanisms implicated in the regulation of TLR4 expression. For this purpose, human neuroblastoma cells (SHSY-5Y) were exposed during 4h to either palmitic acid (a saturated fatty acid) or the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Cells were then treated with resistin. Firstly we analyzed the effect of resistin, palmitic acid and DHA on inflammation markers. We show that only resistin was able to activate NF-κB and to increase the phosphorylation of Akt and p38 MAPK. However, palmitic acid pretreatment increases the expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α), similar to resistin. Interestingly, DHA pretreatment suppresses palmitic acid and resistin induced up-regulation of IL-6 and TNF-α. Secondly, we studied the possible synergistic interaction between resistin and palmitic acid on TLR-4 expression. We show that palmitic acid pretreatment increases TLR4 expression, at both protein and mRNA levels, while DHA pretreatment had no effect. Importantly, palmitic acid pretreatment potentiates resistin effects. In conclusion, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that palmitic acid induces TLR4 expression and this leads to the amplification of resistin effects promoting then insulin resistance at the neuronal level.Taken together, these results demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acids prevent saturated fat-induced inflammation and insulin resistance through resistin/TLR4 signaling thereby preventing insulin resistance.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01722423
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Submitted on : Sunday, March 4, 2018 - 1:01:26 AM
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Hamza Amine. La microalgue Odontella aurita prévient l'insulino-résistance et l'inflammation hépatiques induites par un régime hyper-lipidique : mise en évidence des mécanismes insulino-sensibilisateurs des acides gras polyinsaturés omega-3 au niveau neuronal.. Biologie cellulaire. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE); Université Hassan II (Casablanca, Maroc). Faculté des Sciences, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016SACLS050⟩. ⟨tel-01722423⟩

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