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Amélioration des qualités nutritionnelles et organoleptiques des aliments par encapsulation de composés actifs (arômes, vitamines, antioxydants, acides gras insaturés...)

Abstract : Phytochemicals are widely distributed secondary metabolites, divided into three major classes : terpenoids, flavonoids and alkaloids. They are shown to possess important biological properties such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties. Therefore, increasing the use of these bioactive molecules in food products may reduce the risk of widespread diseases referred to as "diseases of civilization". However, their low solubility, susceptibility to degradation and their rapid release reduce their bioavailability in the human body and thus their biological effect. To solve the aforementioned physicochemical drawbacks, encapsulation systems were developed to allow the incorporation of phytochemicals in food. In this study, two food ingredients : the sesquiterpene nerolidol and the flavonol quercetin were selected du to their potent biological activities but their problematic physicochemical properties.Therfore, the aim of this work was to encapsulate these molecules into cyclodextrins (CDs), conventional liposomes (CLs) and the double systeme drug-in-cyclodextrin-in-liposomes (DCLs), in order to develop nztural and biocompatible formulations that may find applications in food fields. This project was built around three main research axes. The first part dealt with the preparation and the characterization of CD/guest inclusion complexes both in solution and in solid state. Characterizations were performed with UV-visible spectroscopy, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Total Oragnic Carbon (TOC), ¹H NMR, 2D ROESY NMR, and molecular modeling. These investigations were complemented with phase solubility studies.The second axis addressed the preparation of CLs ans DCLs by ethanol injection method and characterization of the vesicles. CLs encapsulating quercetin were prepared from three different types of phospholipids (Lipoid E80, Lipoid S100, Phospholipon 90H) in order to study the effect of lipid composition on the characteristics of liposomes. The optimal formulation was then selected to prepare nerolidol loaded-CLs and DCLs encapsulating the two compounds. HP-β-CD/Ner (at different CD:Ner molar ratios) and SBE-β-CD/Quer inclusion complexes were used as the aqueous phase in the DCL system. The last part focused on the effect of encapsulation on the physicochemical properties of nerolidol and quercetin (in vitro release, photostability, stability in gastro-intestinal fluids, storage stability) and their antioxidant activities. Results demonstrated that CDs could successfully encapsulate bioactive compounds, enhance their solubility , photostability and antioxidant activity. Furthermore, Lipoid E80-liposomes were nanometric in size, exhibited a high entrapment efficiency and higher stability in comparison to the other formulations. Moreover, CD:guest molar ratio influenced the size of DCLs and their encapsulation efficiency. When compared to CLs, DCLs extended the release of neridol, enhanced the photostability of both compounds ans increased the stability of quercetin in biological fluids. These results could be considered as a promising tool to achieve an optimized and efficient formulation incorporating nerolidol and quercetin in food industry.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01721777
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Submitted on : Friday, March 2, 2018 - 3:26:10 PM
Last modification on : Saturday, March 3, 2018 - 1:09:08 AM
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Joyce Azzi. Amélioration des qualités nutritionnelles et organoleptiques des aliments par encapsulation de composés actifs (arômes, vitamines, antioxydants, acides gras insaturés...). Biochimie, Biologie Moléculaire. Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017DUNK0460⟩. ⟨tel-01721777⟩

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