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Analyse statistique de données biologiques à haut débit

Abstract : The technological progress of the last twenty years allowed the emergence of an high-throuput biology basing on large-scale data obtained in a automatic way. The statisticians have an important role to be played in the modelling and the analysis of these numerous, noisy, sometimes heterogeneous and collected at various scales. This role can be from several nature. The statistician can propose new concepts, or new methods inspired by questions asked by this biology. He can propose a fine modelling of the phenomena observed by means of these technologies. And when methods exist and require only an adaptation, the role of the statistician can be the one of an expert, who knows the methods, their limits and the advantages.In a first part, I introduce different methods developed with my co-authors for the analysis of high-throughput biological data, based on latent variables models. These models make it possible to explain a observed phenomenon using hidden or latent variables. The simplest latent variable model is the mixture model. The first two presented methods constitutes two examples: the first in a context of multiple tests and the second in the framework of the definition of a hybridization threshold for data derived from microarrays. I also present a model of coupled hidden Markov chains for the detection of variations in the number of copies in genomics taking into account the dependence between individuals, due for example to a genetic proximity. For this model we propose an approximate inference based on a variational approximation, the exact inference not being able to be considered as the number of individuals increases. We also define a latent-block model modeling an underlying structure per block of rows and columns adapted to count data from microbial ecology. Metabarcoding and metagenomic data correspond to the abundance of each microorganism in a microbial community within the environment (plant rhizosphere, human digestive tract, ocean, for example). These data have the particularity of presenting a dispersion stronger than expected under the most conventional models (we speak of over-dispersion). Biclustering is a way to study the interactions between the structure of microbial communities and the biological samples from which they are derived. We proposed to model this phenomenon using a Poisson-Gamma distribution and developed another variational approximation for this particular latent block model as well as a model selection criterion. The model's flexibility and performance are illustrated on three real datasets.A second part is devoted to work dedicated to the analysis of transcriptomic data derived from DNA microarrays and RNA sequencing. The first section is devoted to the normalization of data (detection and correction of technical biases) and presents two new methods that I proposed with my co-authors and a comparison of methods to which I contributed. The second section devoted to experimental design presents a method for analyzing so-called dye-switch design.In the last part, I present two examples of collaboration, derived respectively from an analysis of genes differentially expressed from microrrays data, and an analysis of translatome in sea urchins from RNA-sequencing data, how statistical skills are mobilized, and the added value that statistics bring to genomics projects.
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Submitted on : Friday, March 2, 2018 - 1:03:15 AM
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Julie Aubert. Analyse statistique de données biologiques à haut débit. Statistiques [math.ST]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLS048⟩. ⟨tel-01721318⟩

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