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Mécanismes d’action des perturbateurs endocriniens bisphénol A et phtalates sur le développement du testicule fœtal

Abstract : For several years, an increase in the incidence of pathologies connected to the male reproductive functions has been described in numerous studies. These anomalies are classified under the term “testicular dysgenesis syndrome”. This syndrome might find its origins in the deleterious effects of environmental pollutants on the testis development in fetal period. Among theses environmental pollutants, phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are the most produced plasticizers found in products of common use. Many studies were performed in order to determine their effects, and allowed to classify them as endocrine disruptors because of their reprotoxic effects. My thesis work is a study of the effects of these two endocrine disruptors on the fetal testis development.Our first study focuses on the effects of BPA on the fetal testis development. Using the organotypic culture model, we developed our study in three species: rat, mouse and human. We demonstrated that BPA decreases the testosterone secretion in the human fetal testis from a 10-8M concentration, while in rat and mouse the testosterone secretion is only affected by 10-5M BPA. We also demonstrated a decreased Insl-3 gene expression, in the same conditions. These results allowed us to evidence a difference of sensibility between species. To understand the mechanisms involved in the BPA toxic effect, we compared it with the effect of DES, another endocrine disruptor with estrogenic activity. Unlike BPA, DES decreases the fetal testosterone secretion in rodents and not in human. This result suggests the involvement of two different signalisation pathways for these two xenoestrogens. This hypothesis is reinforced by the study that we performed in mice invalidated for the estrogen receptor ERα. In those mice, the anti-androgenic effect of BPA is maintained, unlike DES effect.In parallel, we investigated the mechanisms of action of phtalates and particularly of their most prevalent active metabolite, the MEHP (mono-2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate). Following previous studies performed in our laboratory concerning the effects of MEHP, we intended to understand the mechanisms by which MEHP induces the apoptosis in male germ cells. We evidenced an increase in Stra8 gene expression in MEHP treated germ cells. This result suggests that MEHP might induce a wrong differentiation in male germ cells. Furthermore, we investigated the receptors and the signalisation pathway activated by MEHP. We observe that PPARα and PPARγ receptors agonists induce the same phenotypes as MEHP, namely an increase in the apoptosis and in Stra8 gene expression in germ cells.
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Thierry N'Tumba-Byn. Mécanismes d’action des perturbateurs endocriniens bisphénol A et phtalates sur le développement du testicule fœtal. Sciences agricoles. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PA11T006⟩. ⟨tel-01721315⟩

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