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Theses

Towards an atlas of green microalgae (Chlorophyta) in the ocean

Abstract : The green lineage that dominates on land is represented by Chlorophyta which account in average for 25% of photosynthetic sequences (Dinoflagellates excluded) in global marine molecular inventories. Although Chlorophyta are major keys for ecological understanding of the ocean, as well as the evolutionary story understanding of land plants, their diversity and distribution in marine waters has been understudied. This thesis aims at investigating the environmental diversity of marine Chlorophyta and describing their distributions based on available large scale metabarcoding datasets. First, a reference database of publicly available 18S rRNA sequences of Chlorophyta was assembled and critically curated. Next, the Ocean Sampling Day (OSD) 18S metabarcode datasets were analysed. Chlorophyta diversity was compared for a limited sample set based on two regions of the 18S rRNA: the V4 and V9 regions. Then, Chlorophyta distribution was studied using the full OSD V4 dataset. Careful taxonomic investigations using both automatic and hand checked assignation of OTUs using alignments and phylogenies allowed to confirm the existence of new environmental prasinophytes clades and to confirme, that the Mamiellophyceae were the major group in coastal waters, while prasinophytes Clade VII and IX were dominating the oceanic oligotrophic stations. Comparing V4 and V9 regions illustrated the influence of the reference database on diversity. Moreover, the taxonomic investigation highlighted the diversity gaps between reference databases and environmental datasets. This work emphasizes the neglected importance of Chlorophyta in marine waters and provides some suggestions for future research.
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Margot Tragin. Towards an atlas of green microalgae (Chlorophyta) in the ocean. Ecology, environment. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017PA066309⟩. ⟨tel-01720494⟩

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