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Dégradation de la Fumonisine B1 par la communauté microbienne dans les ensilages de maïs grain humide

Abstract : Fungi of the genus Fusarium are one of the major contaminants of maize that can produce mycotoxins, such as the fumonisin B1 (FB1). Maize silage which is based on the fermentation of whole crop plant or grains is considered the main source of monogastrics and cattle feeding in Europe. The ensiling process could favor changes in FB1 content; however this has scarcely been documented. This led to questioning regarding the possibility of managing the microbiota during ensiling in order to reduce the level of mycotoxins exposure and improve feed quality. The aim of this work is to study the fate of FB1 during ensiling process of high moisture maize grain and to identify an endemic microbiota capable of degrading FB1. Laboratory scale silages were prepared with naturally contaminated FB1 grains from two cropping years. An analytical procedure allowed assessing both free and matrix associated FB1 forms and showed a significant decrease in total FB1 content that are not linked to the presence of bound FB1. Additionally, our data showed that the FB1 content decrease was mainly due to a degradation process. Identification of a potential microbiota responsible for FB1 degradation was conducted. A metagenomics approach combining a selective microbial DNA extraction and high-throughput shotgun sequencing showed microbial specific patterns between FB1 degrading and weakly degrading silage. These results were also supported by the isolation of microbial strains able to metabolize FB1. Ultimately, this work evidenced a microbiota associated to FB1 degradation and the functional diversity involved in this activity. Bacteria and yeasts have been obtained for further studies on degradation activities and their usage as silage starter.
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Ccori Silbina Martinez Tuppia. Dégradation de la Fumonisine B1 par la communauté microbienne dans les ensilages de maïs grain humide. Sciences agricoles. Université de Bordeaux, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015BORD0250⟩. ⟨tel-01720257⟩

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