De l'événement scientifique des "manipulations génétiques" au problème des OGM : une approche pragmatiste de la constitution de la dangerosité des OGM comme problème public au prisme de sa médiatisation télévisuelle (1953-2012)

Abstract : The aim of this research is to analyze the political dynamics of the formation of genetically modified organisms as a public problem through television mediation. In an effort to distance this work from classic sociological theory of public problems, best embodied by constructivism, this thesis follows a pragmatic approach. Such as theoretical standpoint enables us to demonstrate that problems are formed through processes of enquiry which lead to the formation of specific publics. These publics will reconfigure the perceived consequences of problems, and try to make a situation worthy of consideration by public authorities. To refer to problems as experiences is to consider their origin as an occurrence of novelty, which alters one’s relationship to the world, and establishes a demand for meaning. As it is shown in this work, the formation of GMOs as a public problem is inseparable from the awareness of the spectacular emergence of genetic manipulation in the 70’s, which can be considered as one of the major scientific events of the known world.The strong connection between events and public problems is both paramount and innovative, as it allows us to understand how in the mid 90’s GM food organisms are formed as public problems by a variety of social agents, among which the television. If public problems create an arena of dispute composed of many public scenes, the television acts as a public scene which harbors and engages in the publicization process. As a provider of problematization, it plays a key role in singling out the scientific event and the public problem it gives rise to, through framing, reframing, and various mediation operations which include political publics and agents. In this work, the collective dynamics at work are central to the hypothesis that a problem constitutes a key moment of transformation during which society engages in self-reflexive and self-productive processes.
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Thierno Souaibou Barry. De l'événement scientifique des "manipulations génétiques" au problème des OGM : une approche pragmatiste de la constitution de la dangerosité des OGM comme problème public au prisme de sa médiatisation télévisuelle (1953-2012). Sciences de l'information et de la communication. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017USPCA081⟩. ⟨tel-01720071⟩

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