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Etude des variants structuraux génomiques pour comprendre les processus démographiques et adaptatifs impliqués dans la domestication des petits ruminants

Abstract : Genomic structural variations (SVs) account for a large part of the polymorphism between individuals, but their impacts on micro-evolutionary processes remain poorly known and large-scale studies are scarce.The first part of this manuscript is a bibliographic study of SVs in domestic animals. This part highlights the importance of SVs in modifying genes or their regulation, impacting a large number of traits selected during domestication and linked to productivity, morphology or behaviour.Based on the study of resequenced data from 500 whole genomes of wild and domestic small ruminants, the second part, targeting three SVs described in the bibliography, allowed (i) to refute the hypothesis of a link between the domestication of sheep and the amplification of endogenous protective copies of the JSRV retrovirus located in the 6q13 region, l, (ii) to identify duplications surrounding and affecting the ASIP gene that could be involved in the coat color changes related to the domestication of small ruminants, as well as (iii) highlight a potential adaptive role to arid climate of an haplotype of beta-globin locus in sheep.In the third part, we conducted a whole genome survey of SVs . Through the development of a SVs detection method and its application, we could detect about 50k and 20k SVs in Ovis and Capra. Of these SVs, 135 and 70 in Ovis and Capra, respectively, appear to be linked with domestication and affect genes involved in improvement, immunity, reproduction or survival. In addition, in Morocco, the distributions of 130 SVs for sheep and 35 SVs for goats covariate with environmental variables. Some of them affect genes involved in morphology, immunity and metabolism.This work highlights that many variants impacting genes might have been targeted during initial domestication and subsequent improvement steps or during the local adaptation of sheep and goats. It demonstrates the importance of considering structural variants in genomic studies to describe the genetic basis of domestication.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, February 28, 2018 - 4:07:08 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01719909, version 1

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Tristan Cumer. Etude des variants structuraux génomiques pour comprendre les processus démographiques et adaptatifs impliqués dans la domestication des petits ruminants. Biodiversité. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017GREAV075⟩. ⟨tel-01719909⟩

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