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Valorisation des analogies lexicales entre l'anglais et les langues romanes : étude prospective pour un dispositif plurilingue d'apprentissage du FLE dans le domaine de la santé

Abstract : This prospective lexicological investigation belongs to the field of L3 French didactics. The purpose is to elaborate a French-Italian-Portuguese-Spanish interlexicon out of the frequent adjectives, nouns and verbs of the healthcare scientific writings, and their analogue translation equivalents in French, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish. Two words are analogue if they have the same meaning and a similar form.Related concepts of analogy, similarity and identity are discussed, types of intralinguistic and cross-linguistic analogies reviewed, and the main analogies and differences between English, French and Romance languages detailed. Their many analogies are justified by Indo-European origins and mostly by intense language contacts. Once the importance of analogy in learning procedures has been highlighted, we show how this research and two types of didactic approaches connect together: intercomprehension, which develops comprehension skills in neighbor languages, and corpus approaches which enable to get a closer insight into scientific phraseology.The 2000 most frequent English lemmas were extracted from the ScienText English scientific corpus, their 2208 frequent acceptions explored from their combinatory profile and sorted out in two semantic categories: healthcare subject-specific vocabulary and science specific trans-disciplinary vocabulary. The English lemmas were translated into the four Romance languages, and similarity measurements were carried out with the longest common substring method.The interlexicon contains 47% of the frequent acceptions. Analogy is even higher by language pairs: English – French, 66%, English – Italian, 65%, English - Spanish, 63%, English – Portuguese, 58%. Consequently, this analogue vocabulary could form a transfer basis in learning activities of L3 French for health care providers, and L2 English seems to be a possible bridge language toward Romance languages. Plurilingual activities are built on concordances extracted from multilingual aligned corpora (EMEA, Europarl). Metalinguistic questions in English point out (morpho)syntactic features of French; the analogies between both languages are systematically enhanced, and in case of lexical opacity, those between English and the other Romance languages.
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Fabrice Gilles. Valorisation des analogies lexicales entre l'anglais et les langues romanes : étude prospective pour un dispositif plurilingue d'apprentissage du FLE dans le domaine de la santé. Linguistique. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017GREAL011⟩. ⟨tel-01719853⟩

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