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La Flavescence Dorée de la vigne : Identification et caractérisation des protéases de surface FtsH du phytoplasme de la FD et Caractérisation de la sensibilité variétale par comparaison de cépages très sensibles et peu sensibles.

Abstract : Flavescence Dorée (FD) is a severe epidemic disease of grapevine caused by a wall-less bacteria, a phytoplasma (pFD), transmitted by the insect vector Scaphoideus titanus. There is no resistant variety, but differences in susceptibility between Vitis exist. In France, the actual control consists in insecticide treatments against the vector, up-rooting of diseased plants and sanitary control of plants. It has high economic and environmental impacts. A better understanding of the pathosystem FDp-grapevine-S. titanus is essential to develop alternative measures. In this context, the main objectives of my thesis were (1) to identify and characterize the expression of genes encoding surface proteases, FtsH, potentially involved in the virulence of the pFD, (2) to characterize the FDp multiplication and diffusion in Vitis without taking into account grapevine-S. titanus interactions, (3) to initiate the characterization of genetic determinism by phenotyping a pool of progeny from the cross between the susceptible variety CF and the poorly susceptible variety Mag and, (4) to identify differences in gene expression between the very susceptible variety CS and the poorly susceptible variety M by transcriptomes comparison. Results indicate that (1) eight FtsH genes are encoded by the FDp and are differentially expressed between plant and insect hosts, (2) differences in FD susceptibility in Vitis are caused, at least in part, by Vitis-FDp interactions, (3) a segregation of the characters "plant infection" and "pFD multiplication" is obtained in the progeny and, (4) M activates different metabolic pathways than CS to respond to FDp infection. Such knowledge can contribute to the development of alternative methods for limiting phytosanitary inputs.
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Camille Jollard. La Flavescence Dorée de la vigne : Identification et caractérisation des protéases de surface FtsH du phytoplasme de la FD et Caractérisation de la sensibilité variétale par comparaison de cépages très sensibles et peu sensibles.. Sciences agricoles. Université de Bordeaux, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017BORD0899⟩. ⟨tel-01718515⟩

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