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Développement de stratégies analytiques basées sur la LC-MS/MS pour la recherche de traces de pesticides et métabolites dans des matrices apicoles

Abstract : For several years, abnormally high mortalities have been observed in bees worldwide. Several factors may be responsible for these phenomena, including the use of pesti-cides. Among these, insecticides of the family of neonicotinoids and pyrethroids as well as some fungicides of the carboxamide family are implicated. The work presented is devoted to the development of analytical methods for the identification, detection and quantification of 13 pesticides and their metabolites in bees and hive products such as beebread and beeswax.Initially, an original dSPE method was developed for the extraction of targeted pesti-cides in beeswax. Combined with a liquid chromatographic analysis method coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), it allows to reach limits of quantification never reached before in multi-families analysis on this complex matrix, between 1 and 40 ng.g-1.The application of this method to beeswaxes and the analysis of other beekeeping matrices provided by beekeepers (a total of 488 samples including 125 bees, 87 bees-waxes and 276 honeybees) showed a wide presence of these pesticides in french apiar-ies. Overall, beeswax is the matrix with the highest concentrations and beebread is the most contaminated matrix in terms of number of pesticides present.A second part of the work is devoted to the detection and identification of pesticide metabolites generated by in vitro and in vivo experiments. For this, an analytical strategy, based on the complementarity between time-of-flight and triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry, has been put in place. The first allows the identification of me-tabolites by combining the search for known metabolites and specific isotopic profiles (Cl, Br, S). The second allows their detection and quantification in bee samples.This dual approach has identified 9 pesticide metabolites and 5 markers of exposure. Metabolites and markers of exposure to boscalid (carboxamide), mainly derived from hydroxylation, dehalogenation and substitution reactions, have been synthesized. These were then detected and quantified in bee samples from symptomatic apiaries.These analytical developments and results make it possible, on the one hand, to make an inventory of the presence of pesticides of concern in french apiaries. On the other hand, they provide ecotoxicologists with data to better understand the behavior of pesticides in bees
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Submitted on : Tuesday, February 27, 2018 - 10:35:05 AM
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Claire Jabot. Développement de stratégies analytiques basées sur la LC-MS/MS pour la recherche de traces de pesticides et métabolites dans des matrices apicoles. Chimie analytique. Université de Lyon, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LYSE1216⟩. ⟨tel-01718115⟩

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