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Theses

Rôle de la plasticité comportementale dans l'adaptation aux variations nutritionnelles chez un primate malgache

Abstract : In order to survive in a changing environment, individuals have to express an appropriate response. It is known that animals have the ability to adjust their behaviour to their environment. This behavioural plasticity allows a quick and adapted response to environmental variations, maximizing the individual'ssurvival and gene transmission. This plasticity relies on costly brain processes making these adaptations particularly dependent of food availability and maybe quality.This thesis project aimed at better understanding the constraints of these responses in a species under a strong selection pressure. To investigate this problematic, we studied the behavioural responses of a small Malagasy primate, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), to both quantitative and qualitative changes in food resources. The first part of this work investigated the effect of a short-term caloric restriction without malnutrition over two studies. In the first one, we studied the effects of a 60% caloric restriction without malnutrition on innate behavioural plasticity via the study of the biological clock. The results show a decrease in the ability to resynchronize on a light/dark cycle following a time-shift. This difficulty to resynchronize was linked to body mass loss, the individuals loosing the more weight being the one unable to resynchronize after the 6-hours time shift. In the second study, we investigated the effect of a 40% caloric restriction without malnutrition on acquired behavioural plasticity. This study show a decrease in learning abilities of the restricted individuals after 19 days of dietary treatment and no influence on long term memory. This decrease in learning abilities was also linked with body mass loss, with the individuals loosing the more weight being the one with the worst success rate during this task. The second part focused on the effects of a qualitative variation in food supply via a long-term supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. This part allowed us to show an increase in learning abilities associated with increased neurogenesis in three brain zones for supplemented animals after 18 month of treatment as well as a decrease of their anxiety level.This thesis work show that both quantitative and qualitative nutritional variations are able to influence different forms of behavioural plasticity and their cerebral basis and are of particular importance in the adaptation and survival of individuals.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01717592
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Submitted on : Monday, February 26, 2018 - 3:16:08 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01717592, version 1

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Nicolas Villain. Rôle de la plasticité comportementale dans l'adaptation aux variations nutritionnelles chez un primate malgache. Biologie animale. Museum national d'histoire naturelle - MNHN PARIS, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017MNHN0006⟩. ⟨tel-01717592⟩

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