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Eco-evolutionary dynamics in asexual populations : evolutionary rescue in Fisher's adaptive landscape

Abstract : The persistence ability of a population facing a stressing environmental change is a complex question at the connection between ecology and evolution. The process by which a population avoid extinction by adapting to the new stressing environmental conditions is termed evolutionary rescue. This particular case of eco-evolutionary dynamic is increasingly investigated both theoretically and experimentally, among other things in the context of the environmental changes from human activity. However, the studies modelling this process neglect the interactions between genotypes and environments impacting the evolutionary potential of the populations facing environmental changes. In the context of this thesis, I developed models integrating these interactions. To this end, I modelled the process of evolutionary rescue in asexual populations, facing abrupt environmental changes, using the adaptive landscape of Fisher (Fisher’s geometric model (1930)). This landscape allowed us to model the genotypes-environments interactions and their impact on the proportion of mutations able to save a population. Using two models, considering either the rescue of a population by a mutation of strong effect, either by a large number of mutation of small effect, we derived predictions for the probability of evolutionary rescue, which depends on the environmental conditions and the characteristics of the studied organism. These models can be parametrized on data from evolutionary experiments and their predictions compared to data of antibiotic treatments aiming on asexual pathogens. Beyond evolutionary rescue, the models developed in this thesis also gave tools to model other eco-evolutionary dynamics, integrating genotype-environment interactions and their effects on the distribution of mutations effects.
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Submitted on : Friday, February 23, 2018 - 3:59:05 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01716422, version 1

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Yoann Anciaux. Eco-evolutionary dynamics in asexual populations : evolutionary rescue in Fisher's adaptive landscape. Populations and Evolution [q-bio.PE]. Université Montpellier, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017MONTT135⟩. ⟨tel-01716422⟩

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